Online ISSN: 2515-8260

Keywords : Magnetic resonance imaging


Dr. Ibadat Jamil, Dr. Anish Kapoor, Dr. Nazia Qadeer, Dr. Apoorva Singh, Dr. Neha Srivastava, Dr. Prateek Tandon .

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2023, Volume 10, Issue 1, Pages 4718-4721

Radiographic examinations are one of the primary diagnostic tools used in dentistry to determine disease states and formulate appropriate treatment.Digital imaging, plain and computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging and other techniques such as cone beam CT are now part of the armamentarium in this specialty. Improvement in the understanding of disease states have also been the result of efforts by this specialty.

Assessment of renal ADC values in normal and diabetic patients by DWI MRI sequence

Dr. Ashok Kumar Verma, Dr. Arbaz Zubair, Dr. Nimisha Mishra, Dr. Urousa Irfan

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2023, Volume 10, Issue 2, Pages 2275-2282

The term "diabetic nephropathy" refers to a clinical syndrome that includes persistent albuminuria, a consistent decrease in glomerular filtration rate (GFR) that eventually leads to end-stage renal disease, elevated arterial blood pressure, and increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. The apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) has shown potential as a marker of renal function in several investigations, with decreased renal ADC in kidney disease. The aim of this study was to assess the difference in apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) value in normal and diabetic kidney.
Methods: This was a cross sectional analytical study conducted from January 2021 to October 2022 in in Department of Radio diagnosis with the help of Department of Medicine. The cases coming to the Department of Medicine for routine follow up fulfilling the inclusion (age >18 years of diabetes mellitus with history of diabetic nephropathy). The MRI examination was performed using a 3 Tesla system.Binary logistic regression analysis was used for estimating the parameters of a logistic model (the coefficients in the linear combination). The p-value was taken significant when less than 0.05 and confidence interval of 95% was taken.
Results: In the study 26 (52%) cases were of diabetes mellitus while 24 (48%) cases were taken as control who were non diabetic. Out of 26 cases, majority belong to the stage 3 (46.2%) followed by the stage 4 and stage 5 with 6 (23.1%) cases each. The study included 1 case each of Stage 1 and stage 2. The ROC Analysis to find Accuracy of ADC Parameters for Detecting DM revealed that Lt, Rt and overall ADC values are highly accurate for detecting DM cases as their AUROC values comes out to be 0.999, 0.960 and 1.000 respectively, the very close/equal to perfect standard 1.000.
Conclusion: The magnetic resonance imaging- Apparent diffusion Coefficient (ADC) value is an appropriate method for assessment and evaluation of diabetic nephropathy. Renal ADC values show a significant correlation with clinical stages of diabetic nephropathy, it is a reliable diagnostic tool for differentiation between diabetic nephropathy patients from diabetic patients without nephropathy

An Evaluation of the Clinic Radiological Effects of Single-Versus Double-Bundle Arthroscopic Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction

Paresh Chandra Dey

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2023, Volume 10, Issue 3, Pages 889-894

The research objective was to compare the clinical and radiological results of single-bundle versus double-bundle arthroscopic anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) replacement.
Method: 80 patients with isolated ACL injuries had surgery between July 2020 and July 2021, with groups for single bundle (SB) and double bundle (DB) reconstructions each consisting of 40 individuals. The GNRB arthrometer, the International Knee Documentation Committee, and the Lysholm scale were used to evaluate the results. The lateral pivot-shift test was used to evaluate rotational stability. To compare the repaired ACL graft orientation, postoperative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was done.
Result: The average follow-up was 18.2 months for the DB group and 14.8 months for the SB group. The mean Lysholm score was 94.12±2.66 in the SB group and 93.12±3.30 in the DB group at the time of the final follow-up (P value = 0.201, statistically insignificant). According to the objective IKDC scores, all of the patients in both groups were in grade A or B. The mean differential anterior tibial translation in the SB group was 1.44 ± 0.5 mm and in the DB group it was 1.16 ± 0.7 mm (P = 0.104, NS). In the DB group, all of the pivot shift tests were negative, whereas in the SB group, three patients showed positive results. According to an MRI of surgically repaired knees, both groups' mean sagittal and mean coronal ACL graft-tibial angles were equivalent (P value > 0.04, NS).
Conclusion: At an average of 15 months of follow-up, there was no statistically significant difference between the single-bundle and double-bundle ACL repair groups in terms of knee stability, knee ratings, subjective assessments, or MRI examination of graft inclination angles.

Magnetic Resonance Imaging Impact On The Evaluation of Spinal Tumors

S. Naveen Kumar, Pokam Harikiran, Nikitha Bujji .

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2023, Volume 10, Issue 3, Pages 212-221

Introduction: The spinal cord and the components that support it may be impacted by various tumours and illnesses that resemble tumours. 15% of all tumors are comprise of craniospinal tumors. If not identified early and properly treated, they can impact both adults and children and result in serious neurological abnormalities and a number of morbidities.


Dr. Sourabh Agarwal Dr. Amit Jain Dr. Sonal Kulshreshtha Dr. Akshara Gupta Dr. Sweta Swaika

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2023, Volume 10, Issue 2, Pages 1133-1146

Our study's objective is to assess the degree and type of brain edema, incidence of atypical and typical regions of involvement and unusual imaging manifestations as well as to assess the neuro imaging abnormalities in eclampsia patients with PRES.
Material and Method: This is a referral hospital-based prospective study of 50 consecutive cases of eclampsia who were subjected to MRI brain. All 50 women with eclampsia were treated with routine principles of management of eclampsia.
Results: We observed a combined pattern of typical and atypical PRES compared to individual findings. Among the atypical patterns of PRES, the holohemispheric atypical pattern was observed to be highly significant compared to other atypical patterns of PRES. 36% of patients were observed with postpartum eclampsia which is most common in duration of less than 48 hours. During follow-up, reversible eclampsia with PRES was highly observed compared to irreversible.
Conclusion: Magnetic resonance imaging  is a useful imaging technique that improves the diagnosis as well as differentiates the types of PRES .MRI could help early detection of PRES in eclampsia patients for better prognosis and overall improvement of maternal and child health.

Evaluation of the variability of imaging characteristics in normal pressure hydrocephalus

Dr. Soundara Pandian M, Dr. Praveen Elaprolu, Dr. Ranjith Kumar Siripurapu

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2023, Volume 10, Issue 2, Pages 1118-1125

Normal pressure hydrocephalus (NPH) is a syndrome found in the elderly, which is characterized by the clinical triad of gait disturbance, dementia, and urinary incontinence without overt signs and symptoms of elevated intracranial pressure. NPH has been estimated to account for upto10% of cases of dementia and is significant because it is treatable by ventriculoperitoneal shunting. NPH can be idiopathic or can be secondary. The secondary causes are: traumatic brain injury, meningitis, subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) or intracranial surgery. Patients with Idiopathic NPH respond better to treatment than secondary
Materials and Methods: It is a prospective cross-sectional study. Inpatients and outpatients of age group more than 40 years of age, of both gender (males and females) diagnosed with normal pressure hydrocephalus as per consensus criteria were referred to Department of Radiodiagnosis from the department of. The patients underwent Magnetic resonance imaging/computed tomography study of brain.
Results: A total 40 patients were included in this study according to consensus criteria. Computed tomography (CT) and Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) show ventricular enlargement disproportionate to cerebral atrophy, with associated ballooning of frontal horns, periventricular hyperintensities, thinning and elevation of the corpus callosum and widening of temporal horns without evidence of hippocampal atrophy in NPH.
Conclusion: Although diagnosis can be made based on CT findings alone, MRI is more accurate for disclosing associated pathologies (such as cerebrovascular disease) and for detecting NPH typical signs of prognostic value, besides avoiding exposure to ionizing radiation. MRI is the best modality to image anatomical changes and can further support the diagnosis with CSF flow studies.

Degenerative Lumbar Spine findings on MRI in Young Adults presenting with Low Back Pain

Dr. Shrinidhi Kulkarni; Dr. Apurva Vohra; Dr. Monica Satyam

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 8, Pages 922-928

Aim: The purpose of this study was to determine the MRI findings in young adult patients presenting with low back pain suggestive of degenerative lumbar spine disease.
Methods: The study was conducted in the Department of Radio-Diagnosis of Pacific Medical College and Hospital, Udaipur, Rajasthan. Participants who fulfilled the inclusion criteria were included in the study and written informed consent were obtained before the start of the procedure. Bio-data, Clinical detail and level of physical activity were obtained and recorded.
Results: Of the 100 patients (52 males and 48 females; age range 18 to 39 years, median [IQR] 33 [14-23]) who were evaluated, 80 (80%) [42 males and 38 females] were found to have lumbar spine diseases. Fifty-six (56%) patients had gradual onset of pain whereas 44 (44%) had sudden onset; 82 (82%) patients had severe pain and most of which were burning in nature (n = 74, 74%). Majority of the patients had radiating pains (n = 62, 62%) that was frequently aggravated by bending down (n = 43, 43%) and alleviated by lying down (n = 90, 90%). The median duration of pain was 4 weeks, with a minimum duration of 1 week and maximum of 14 weeks.
Conclusion: Pain lasting more than 10 weeks is the most common clinical presentation among patients with LBP. Disc protrusion and disc desiccation are the most common findings in patients who present with severe LBP of acute onset in this study. LBP which is radiating in nature is the most common finding in patients with disc protrusion in this study.


N Anwesh Reddy1,Geetha Bhat, Sheema TM,GummaluriSS , V S P Gupta K, Som Sudheer B

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 7, Pages 8772-8588

BACKGROUND: It is much evident that stress and bite force show either direct or indirect effects on periodontium whichin turn can cause changes in the temporomandibular joint tissues. Individual comparisons were executed but none of the studies were performed to find the correlation between all these parameters especially in theTMJ of asymptomatic stressed individuals using Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI).
OBJECTIVES: The present research aimed to evaluate and correlate the Stress, Bite Force, Clinical Periodontal status and TMJ Radiographic changes using the gold standard technique i.e. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) in order to perceive both soft and hard tissue changes of TMJ in the Asymptomatic stressed individuals.
MATERIAL AND METHODS: To categorize the stressed systemically healthy individuals from non-stressed individuals by using ISMAquestionnaire,and assess the periodontal status by using CPITN Probe, followed by bite force assessment using the Bite Force Sensor device and finally evaluate the temporomandibular joint soft and hard tissue changes by using MRI.
RESULTS: A significant correlation was seen between Bite Force and Stress condition; Gender and stress condition. Among right and left side first molar regions, males have shown a greater mean bite force on left sidethan females. No significant correlation was seen between bite force and periodontal clinical parameters (CAL, PPD& GI). However ,comparing mean bite fore on right and left sides with MRI changes of TMJ in all the views, even though no significant changes were reported, correlation were found to be negative.
CONCLUSION: Based on the preliminary results observed by clinical (stress, bite force, periodontal parameters) and MRI examinations (soft tissue changes), no direct relationship could be determined between stress and soft tissue changes of TMJ, but due to presence of mild osteoarthritic changes in the condyle in few asymptomatic subjects, these patients can be more prone to osteoarthritis condition in near future

Study of correlation between MRI and arthroscopic findings in anterior cruciate ligament and meniscal injuries of the knee joint at a tertiary hospital

Bethi Anirudh Reddy, V Sahethya Mohan Rao, Vikram Goud, Sujitkumar Vakati R, Nayan Raj Puvvada, S. Venkatraman

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 7, Pages 7095-7100

Background: Complete evaluation of knee injury includes a detailed history, thorough clinical examination, radiological evaluation, and arthroscopic examination.  Present study was aimed to study correlation between MRI and arthroscopic findings in anterior cruciate ligament and meniscal injuries of the knee joint at a tertiary hospital.
Material and Methods: Present study was hospital based, prospective, comparative, observational study, conducted in ppatients admitted to the hospital with traumatic knee injury, underwent MRI knee followed by arthroscopy.
Results: During study period 60 patients of knee injury underwent MRI knee followed by arthroscopy considered for study. Majority were male (86.67 %), from 20-29 years age group (60 %), had injury dure to motor vehicle accident (43.33 %) & sports related activity (35 %). We compared injuries to ACL, PCL medial meniscus & lateral meniscus mentioned during MRI study with respect to knee arthroscopy using knee arthroscopy as diagnostic gold standard. In cases of ACL tear, MRI had sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV) & accuracy values as 86.66 %, 73.33 %, 90.69 %, 64.70 % & 83.33 % respectively. In cases of PCL tear, MRI had sensitivity, specificity, PPV, NPV & accuracy values as 86.36 %, 89.47 %, 82.60 %, 91.89 % & 88.33 % respectively. In cases of Medial meniscus tear, MRI had sensitivity, specificity, PPV, NPV & accuracy values as 86.11 %, 87.5 %, 91.17 %, 80.76 % & 86.66 % respectively. In cases of lateral meniscus tear, MRI had sensitivity, specificity, PPV, NPV & accuracy values as 83.33 %, 88.09 % & 75 %, 92.5 % & 86.66 % respectively.
Conclusion: MRI is an excellent, non-invasive, radiation free imaging modality with multiplanar capabilities and excellent soft tissue delineation

Systematic Review on Current Technologies for Kidney Stone Disease Detection and Management

Omar H. I. Aqel, Baha'a A. M. Alhroub

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 7, Pages 6678-6688

Detection of stones in the kidney through imaging is a predominant screening method and the foremost step in choosing the ideal treatment for kidney stone disease. The best first imaging modalities to employ to assess patients with suspected obstructive urolithiasis vary according to the recommendations offered by the American Urological Association (AUA), European Association of Urology (EAU) and American College of Radiology (ACR); the best definitive diagnosis is regularly made with non-contrast Computed Tomography of the abdomen and pelvis, however, doing so exposes individuals to ionizing radiation. Ultrasonography-derived compounds have less radiation than C.T. but have poorer specificity and accuracy. However, randomized controlled experiments comparing these imaging modalities revealed comparable diagnostic accuracy in the emergency unit. Each modality has benefits and drawbacks. Plain radiography of the kidney, ureter and bladder (KUB) is less beneficial in acute stones and perhaps most useful in assessing interval stone development in patients with established stone disease. Although MRI offers the prospect of 3D imaging without radioactive contamination, it is expensive, and at the moment, it is challenging to see stones. Future advancements are anticipated to improve all the imaging modalities for the diagnosis and management of stones in the kidney. Clinicians may benefit from a suggested approach for detecting patients with stone former in consideration of the recommended practices and a random control study.


Dr. Balaji S Pai; Dr. Sandesh Khandelwal; Dr. Gurupadappa; Dr. Vishwanatha Narayana; Dr. Raghu Patil

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 6, Pages 1892-1897

Context: Contrast enhanced MRI scans with addition of arterial and venous sequences are the most important studies to evaluate Intracranial Meningiomas. MRI is being utilized to determine the histological subtypes and biologic behavior of meninigiomas

Diffusion Weighted MRI in Evaluation of Focal Liver Lesions

Laxman Prasad Ahirwar, Mallika Jain Singhai, Deepak Singh, Meenal Jain

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 6, Pages 1459-1468

Background: The present study was undertaken to determine the role of noncontrast MRI and diffusion weighted imaging in particular along with the corresponding ADC values in the identification and characterization of the focal liver lesions. The study proposes to set forth a cut off ADC value for quickly differentiating between benign and malignant hepatic focal lesions.
Materials and Methods: 70 patients who were referred to our department with strong clinical suspicion of focal liver lesion and those diagnosed by ultrasonography followed by multiphasic contrast enhanced CT underwent non-contrast Magnetic Resonance Imaging evaluation of abdomen using 1.5 T 8 channel MRI. The MRI scans were then reviewed and various focal liver lesions were identified.
Results: The MRI and DWI picked up more focal lesions compared to both USG and Multiphasic CT alone. Ultrasonography shows a sensitivity of 73% though its specificity was a good 88% in predicting malignancy. Multi phasicCT shows a sensitivity of 88% and specificity of 93% in differentiating benign from malignant focal lesion. DWI and ADC values have very good sensitivity and NPV of 97% and 98% respectively for malignant focal liver lesions. The drop in specificity and PPV of ADC values when compared to combined MRI findings of 93% and 91% is mainly due to the low ADC values obtained for abscess. A cut off ADC value of 1.4 x 10-3 mm2/s is considered for differentiating benign from malignant lesions. Difference in mean ADC values of malignant and nonmalignant lesions is highly significant.[P=0.00001].
Conclusion: The sensitivity of noncontrast MRI with DWI and ADC values was very high and more than both USG and contrast enhanced Multiphasic CT. The specificity of MRI was comparable to that of CE- Multiphasic CT in diagnosing malignant focal liver lesions. A cut off ADC value of 1.4 x 10-3 mm2/s was found to be a superior, noninvasive tool for differentiating malignant from benign lesions without the risk of radiation, contrast media and invasiveness. Hence, MRI with DWI in particular is a very valuable noninvasive tool for the identification and characterization of focal liver lesions.


Dr Priyankesh, Dr Niraj Kumar, Dr Santosh Kumar, Dr.Sushma K.N.

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 4, Pages 2850-2854

Background: The present study was conducted for assessing MRI findings of TMJ among patients with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA).
Materials & methods: A total of 20 patients with JIA were enrolled. Complete demographic and clinical details of all the patients was obtained.  A Performa was made and complete clinical and medical history of all the patients was recorded. Patients with history of any other systemic illness, any known drug allergy were excluded from the present study. All the subjects were informed about MRI protocols. MRI of TMJ was done.
Results: While assessing the TMJ by MRI, inflammation and bone marrow oedema was seen in 70 percent and 25 percent of the patients. Bone marrow enhancement and joint effusion were seen in 20 percent of the patients each.Erosion of osseous component was seen in 65 percent of the patients while condylar flattening and temporal bone flattening were seen in 50 percent and 40 percent of the patients.
Conclusion: Early detection and treatment of TMJ arthritis are paramount to preserving motility and preventing deformity.


Dr.KothaVinay Kumar Reddy, Dr.Madan Mohan Babu L, Dr. Suresh A, Dr.Shubham Gupta, Dr.Devamani VKH Chalavadi

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 4, Pages 60-69

Background - Shoulder pain is one of the commonest conditions encountered in our
orthopedic department. Accurate diagnosis is a must before undertaking any treatment. Since
clinical diagnosis cannot make an accurate diagnosis, radiological investigation is necessary
to know the exact cause of shoulder pain. There are a wide range of invasive and noninvasive
modalities that can be used to investigate these patients. Ultrasound examination is a
highly specific and sensitive modality in comparison with MRI. High-resolution real-time
USG has shown to be a cost-effective means of investigation of rotator cuff pathologies. With
recent advances with USG, results of imaging of shoulder joint pathologies are as similar or
in some cases more precise in the diagnosis than MRI.
Methods - Prospective analysis of 52 patients presenting with shoulder pain were included in
our study. A pre-formed written consent is also taken. All patients underwent a thorough
clinical examination, USG of the affected shoulder with comparison of the opposite side and
MRI of the affected shoulder for comparison.
Results - Ultrasound is equivalent in detection of rotator cuff tears in comparison with MRI.
MRI outscores ultrasound in detection of labral tears, cartilaginous lesions and subtle bony
lesions. USG examination can be used as the first line of investigating a case of shoulder pain
as it is inexpensive, real time and allows for comparison with the opposite side. MRI can be
used as a confirmatory tool.


Dr. Kushpreet Kaur, Dr. Priyank Dwivedi, Dr. Sheetal Singh, Dr.Amlendu Nagar, Dr Saba Alvi .

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 3, Pages 721-741

Introduction:. The present study was conducted with an aim to assess the role of MRI for evaluation of adnexal masses and to find out the diagnostic accuracy of MRI in the diagnosis of adnexal masses against the gold standard test ‘histopathology’.
Materials and Methods: This is a prospective comparative study conducted in the Department of Radio Diagnosis, Index medical college hospital and research centre.50 women were taken in our study. These patients were first referred for ultrasonography with history of adnexal masses from gynaecological department. The magnetic resonance imaging was done using 1.5 Tesla MRI machine with patient in supine position.Then the lesion sample was taken and sent for histopathological examination. The results obtained on the MRI were evaluated against the histopathology results and the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value and diagnostic accuracy of MRI was calculated.
Results: Out of 50 patients, 33 (66%) adnexal masses were benign, 15 (30%) were malignant and 2 (4%) were inconclusive on ultrasonography, 35 (70%) adnexal masses were benign, 15 (30%) were malignant on magnetic resonance imaging. 37 (74%) adnexal masses were benign, 13 (26%) were malignant on histopathology. The sensitivity of MRI in the diagnosis of malignant / benign adnexal masses against the histopathology was found to be 92.31%, specificity was 91.89%, positive predictive value was 80.00%, negative predictive value was 97.14% and diagnostic accuracy was 92.00%.
Conclusion: Ultrasound is unable to differentiate adnexal masses into malignant and benign in some cases and gives inconclusive results. While MRI provides better spatial and contrast resolution in delineation of the anatomical structures as well as characterization of pathological lesions. It is highly accurate in identifying the origin of a mass, characterization and staging and helps in the treatment planning. These parameters have been found quite in agreement with the findings of histopathology


Parama Nanda Taye, Dhrubajyoti Borpatra Gohain, Mary Hazarika Bhuyan

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 3, Pages 12189-12195

Background: Back pain is a common clinical condition and is a frequent cause of referral for lumbar spine MRI. The use of radiological imaging is crucial for helping to confirm or exclude pathology and, more crucially, for influencing the treatment decision-making process.The purpose of the current study was to assess the use of MRI in individuals with lower back pain.
Material and Methods: The current study involved individuals who had been sent for an MRI and had low back pain as their predominant complaint, either with or without radiculopathy.
Results: 234 patients of low back pain were considered for study. Mean Age was 46.85 ± 16.35 years. Majority cases were from 46-60 (62.39 %) years age group, were Female (53.42 %), had BMI 25–30 kg/m2 (47.86 %). Majority cases had radiating pain (sciatica) (71.37 %), pain since >2 Years (44.87 %), Moderate (63.68 %) severity of pain. Associated symptoms were tingling (19.66 %), numbness (25.21 %), pain exaggerated by: lifting heavy objects (38.03 %) & pain exaggerated by walking (26.07 %). Common MRI findings were degenerative changes (56.41 %), neural foraminal narrowing (43.16 %), degenerative spondylolisthesis (28.63 %), disc bulge (23.08 %), abnormal alignment (19.23 %), spondylosis (18.38 %), disc protrusion (12.82 %) & canal stenosis (10.26 %). Conclusion: Disc degeneration and other degenerative changes are the most common abnormalities found in MRI examination.

Pseudo-impingement of the Rotator Cuff with Strength Training using Magnetic Resonance Imaging

Rajesh Pattanaik, Santosh Kumar Padhy, Ashis Kumar Satapathy

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 3, Pages 5611-5617

Objective: The goal of this study was to outline a novel, one-of-a-kind idea of secondary
impingement of the rotator cuff muscles, myotendons, and tendons caused by
hypertrophy as a result of strength training exercises.
Methods: In this retrospective observational study, 58 patients were referred to the
radiology department by their orthopaedic surgeon for magnetic resonance imaging
(MRI) over a period of 112 years. All patients had a history of strength training
programmes and clinical signs of rotator cuff impingement.
Results: In 12 of the 58 patients, we found hypertrophy of the rotator cuff muscles,
myotendons, and tendons. On the MRI, this was the sole anomaly. Rotator cuff muscle
and tendon hypertrophy completely filling the subacromial space to the point of
overfilling, resulting in secondary compressive features.
Conclusion: Rotator cuff impingement is a common occurrence that can develop as a
result of a variety of input and outlet pathological situations. However, rotator cuff
impingement can be caused by muscle and tendon hypertrophy as a result of strength
training regimes. Rotator cuff hypertrophy can cause overfilling of the subacromial
area, resulting in secondary impingement, which we call "pseudo-impingement."



European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 3, Pages 5195-5210

Delay in development is a frequent pediatric clinical issue that affects 10-15% of children. The
use of an MRI scan is an important part of the thorough evaluation of children who have been
diagnosed with developmental delay. The current study adapted DTI to analyze the brain
morphology of children diagnosed with developmental delay based on developing evidence.
In this cross sectional study we have studied 30 patients in Yenepoya Medical College Hospital,
Mangalore who met the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Study tool used for the study is the use
of Diffusion Tensor Imaging in addition to routine MR Sequences using 3T MRI. The
quantitative analysis of FA and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) maps were generated
automatically by the software and analysed.



European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 3, Pages 5170-5194

With increase in the proportion of aging dependent population, the need for understanding the
pathogenesis of aging and the risk factors related to age related neurodegeneration is
increasing with definite certainty. Studies pertaining to age related neurodegeneration will
play a role in mitigating the impending issues related to aging population. Studies have
shown the relatively greater involvement of white matter compared to the grey matter with
age and therefore the evaluation of white matter tracts will further shed light onto the
processes that occur with aging.(1)
MRI was performed on a 3T MR scanner (General Electric, Signa Pioneer) with a head‑neck
45 coil. The subjects’ brains were evaluated with conventional imaging using routine axial
T2/T1‑weighted and diffusion-tensor imaging (DTI) sequences. The DTI acquisition protocol
which was used is a dual-spin echo single shot echo-planar imaging sequence with the
following parameters: Forty 3mm thick slices with no inter-slice gap. TR=6400ms,
TE=88ms. FOV= 220x220mm2, matrix of 128x128 zero filled to 256x256. DTI was
performed with b=1000s/mm2 using 25 different encoding directions. The Total scanning
time was 11 mins. Various white matter tracts were evaluated from the DTI sequences using
fibertractographyfollowing which the average Apparent Diffusion Coefficient (ADC) and
Fractional Anisotropy (FA) values of each fiber was computed and tabulated with respect to

Role of magnetic resonance imaging in paediatric brain infections

Dr.GurinderBir Singh,Dr.Poonam Ohri, Dr.Manmeet KaurSodhi, Dr.HiteshiGoyal, Dr. Manasi Kohli

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 3, Pages 4860-4866

Aims and objectives: To study the role of Magnetic Resonance Imaging in diagnosis of
paediatric brain infections, characterization of various patterns of brain involvement
and establishing the differential diagnosis along with role of Diffusion Weighted
Imaging and Apparent Diffusion Coefficient in Cerebral infections .
Materials and methods: 50 cases with suspected brain infection, whose age group
ranged from 0-14 years, referred to the Department of Radiodiagnosis and Imaging,
Government Medical College, Amritsar, were included in this study. The sequences
performed were T1W axial, T2W axial, coronal and saggital, FLAIR axial, DWI/ADC,
SWI,post contrast T1W in all patients and magnetic resonance spectroscopy wherever
required. MRI findings in all cases along with magnetic resonance spectroscopy, clinical
and biochemical findings (wherever required) were taken into consideration to arrive at
a diagnosis.
Results:Outof50patients,mostcommonpathologywastubercularinfectionsseen in 25
patients (50%), followed by 18 patients of pyogenic meningitis (36%), 5 patients of NCC
(10%) and 2 patients of viral encephalitis (4%). The most common finding in tubercular
infections was meningeal enhancement followed by tuberculomas, basal exudatesand
themostcommon complication was hydrocephalus. Themostcommon finding in pyogenic
meningitis was meningeal enhancement and the most common complication was
abscess. Neurocysticercosis lesions were parenchymal. Colloidal vesicular/granular
nodular stage was seen in 3 patients, vesicular in 2 patients and calcified in 1 patient.
Viral encephalitis was seen as areas of cerebral involvement bilaterally with restriction
on DWI/ADC seen in onepatient.
Conclusions: MRI due to its variable intensities in multiple sequences aided by contrast
enhancement helps the radiologist to arrive at an almost exact diagnosis. Italso
drawssupportfromassociatedclinicalfeatures, lesion-staging, complicationsand number
(single or multiple) of the lesions. Thus it scores over CT and ultrasound as basic
modalities for imaging infective disease of brain inchildren.

A comparative study of high resolution ultrasound and MRI in the diagnosis of ankle joint pain

Dr. Poonam Ohri, Dr. Partap Singh Verka, Dr Suragani Priya, Dr.Manasi Kohli

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 3, Pages 4850-4859

Aims and objectives: To evaluate the role of high resolution ultrasound and MRI in the
diagnosis of ankle joint pain.
Material and methods: 50 patients with acute or chronic ankle pain referred to the
Department of Radiodiagnosis and Imaging for sonography and, magnetic resonance
imaging were included in thestudy.
Results: The most common cause of ankle pain in a study was tenosynovitis seen in 16
patients. 8 patients were clinically suspected to have tendoachilles tear. No disagreement
was seen between MRI and USG for tendoachilles tear. All the 12 cases of lateral
ligament injury diagnosed on USG were confirmed on MRI. MRI showed a distinct
advantage over USG in patients with ankle pain by diagnosing marrow edema in 24
patients, calcaneal spur in 4 patients, accessory bone in 1 patient, bone cysts in 3
patients, bony erosions in 1 patient, and stieda process in 1 patient.
Conclusions: Both ultrasound and MRI can be used for imaging evaluation of patients
with ankle pain. Ultrasound is an excellent tool for evaluation of patients with ankle
pain and it can be used as primary imaging investigation. MRI may be used to confirm
the findings of ultrasound in ankle pain, but it should be used as the first imaging
modality in patients with marrow abnormality or when deep seated pathologies are

A study for characterization of MRI findings in patients with nontraumatic hip pain

Dr. Poonam Ohri, Dr. Jaspal Singh, Dr. Gagandeep Sharma, Dr. Manasi Kohli

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 3, Pages 4837-4849

Introduction: A study for characterization of MRI findings in patients with nontraumatic
hip pain.
Aims and objectives: To characterize the MRI findings of underlying pathologies in
patients with non-traumatic hip pain and give radiological diagnosis which will help in
the management of patients.
Materials and methods: 50 cases referred to the Department of Radiodiagnosis and
Imaging, Government Medical College, Amritsar with hip pain were evaluated and
statistically analyzed.
Results: Out of the 50 patients, pathology was seen in 45 patients (90%) and while 5
patients (10%) were found to be normal on MRI. The most common pathology detected
was avascular necrosis seen in 23 patients (46%), followed by 12 patients of infective
arthritis patients (24%), 3 patients of perthes disease (6%), 2 patients of bone tumor
(metastasis) (4%), 2 patients of osteitis condensans illi (4%), 2 patients of stress fracture
(4%) and 1 patient of tendinitis 1 (2%).
Conclusions: MRI was helpful in diagnosing various abnormalities. Various bone signal
abnormalities as well as excellent soft tissue contrast aided in making timely diagnosis
and management. The role of MRI in detection of various abnormalities was also
statistically significant (as compared to plain radiographs which was additionally done)
and had more sensitivity and specificity.

Evaluation of transplant kidney with magnetic resonance imaging: An observational study

Dr Gayatri Patil,DrAmolkumar Patil,Dr Balkrishna Kitture

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 3, Pages 4814-4817

Background:The present study was conducted for assessing patients of transplant kidney
with magnetic resonance imaging.
Materials & methods: A total of 20 patients with undergoing renal transplant were enrolled.
Complete demographic and clinical details of all the patients were assessed. The composite
data was tabulated and studied to evaluate the feasibility of functional MRI parameters i.e.
the blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD-based R2* values), in order to establish role of
functional MRI as one of the reliable noninvasive diagnostic technique for detection of renal
allograft function and dysfunction. All the results were recorded and analyzed using SPSS
Results: Mean ADC Cortex value among patients with stable renal allograft and allograft
dysfunction was 2.56 and 1.85 respectively (p- value < 0.05). Mean ADC Medulla value
among patients with stable renal allograft and allograft dysfunction was 2.51 and 1.79
respectively (p- value < 0.05). Mean R2 Cortex value among patients with stable renal
allograft and allograft dysfunction was 25.3 and 17.5 respectively (p- value < 0.05). Mean R2
Medulla value among patients with stable renal allograft and allograft dysfunction was 24.2
and 16.8 respectively (p- value < 0.05).
Conclusion:MRI is significantly helpful in assessing renal allograft dysfunction at an early

Assessment of Cerebrospinal Fluid Hydrodynamics Using Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Postcraniospinal Surgery Patients

Pragya Sinha, Shivendra Kumar Chaudhary

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 1, Pages 1430-1434

Background: Phase-contrast MRI (PCMRI) with cardiac synchronism is a dynamic technique used to visualize cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) movement. The present study was conducted to assess Cerebrospinal Fluid Hydrodynamics Using Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Postcraniospinal Surgery Patients.
Materials and Methods: The present case-control study comprising 30 patients and 30 controls, conducted over a period of 2 years in a tertiary-care hospital in India. Healthy subjects formed the control group. Conventional magnetic resonance imaging of the brain was performed before PCMRI. Assessment of clinical signs and symptoms was done pre and postoperatively. Statistical Analysis of data was done in terms of mean (±standard deviation), frequencies (number of cases), and percentages. The p-value of < 0.05 was considered significant. All the analysis was performed on SPSS 16.0 version (Chicago, Inc., United States).
Results: The present case-control study comprising 30 patients and 30 controls. Postoperative imaging follow-up was done in 30 patients after an interval of 1 month. Postoperatively, a majority (17) of the patients showed improvement in clinical symptoms. 7 patients showed no change, while six patients showed deterioration. Phase-Contrast Magnetic Resonance Imaging Quantitative parameters measured at cerebral aqueduct, foramen magnum, C2–3, and D12–L1 vertebral levels, in controls, showed no significant difference in peak CSF velocities. In group I and group II mean change CSF velocity was noted in improved patients was more than the other patients.
Conclusion: The present study concluded that PCMRI can effectively evaluate changes in CSF flow noninvasively both pre- and postoperatively.


Dr. Sunny Goyal, Dr. Prachi Jain, Dr. Dalip Singh Dhiman, Dr. Rajender Punia, Dr. Deergha Singh, Dr. Fayaz Khan H

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 1, Pages 163-169

Aim: To evaluate efficiencies of magnetic resonance imaging & ultrasonographyprocedures for various pathologies related to female pelvic region.
Materials & Methods: This study was performed on total sixty patients. All patients reported for various clinical issues of pelvic region. Magnetic resonance imaging & ultrasonography procedures were used as diagnostic imaging modality. Scanning outcomes of magnetic resonance imaging & ultrasonography have been categorized as group one and group two respectively. All suggestive findings of both imaging modalities were correlated with clinical diagnosis. Based on these existences of correlations, Results thus obtained was compiled and sent for basic statistical analysis. P value less than 0.05 was considered significant (p< 0.05).   
Results: Among all sixty studied patients, females were 14 in age group of 25-28 years. 13 patients were seen in age range of 33-36 years. P value was reported to be significant for this (0.01). Magnetic resonance imaging confirmed Inborn Anomalies in 3 patients. Uterine Mutilation was confirmed in 16 patients by magnetic resonance imaging. Pathologies related to Adnexa were noted in 28 patients. P value was reported to be significant for this (0.002). Endometrial Malignancies were noted in 2 patients. P value was reported to be significant for this (0.001). Pathologies related to Adnexa were noted in 25 patients by Ultrasonography. P value was reported to be significant for this (0.010).
Conclusion: Magnetic resonance imaging was able to detect and confirm almost all studied pathologies related to female pelvic region. Ultrasonography procedure was unable to detect few of those pathologies. Therefore, magnetic resonance imaging is superior and accurate option for scanning pelvis region.

Role of Endoscopic Ultrasound in Diagnosis of Pancreatic Cystic Lesions in Comparison to Computed Topography and Magnetic Resonance Imaging

Mohamed Fouad Mostafa Ahmed; Walid Ahmady Abd El-Dayem; Talaat Fathy Aly; Mohamed Ibrahim Magdy; Mohamed Ali El-Nady

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 2500-2509

Background and aims:To evaluate the advantages of endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) in the
assessment of detailed structures of pancreatic cystic lesions (PCLs) compared to computed
tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).
Methods: This prospective cohort study was conducted in Tropical medicine department,
Zagazig university hospitals and in Internal medicine department at Kasr Al Aini Hospitals,
Cairo University, in the period between March 2018 and March 2020. The study included 72
patients with PCLs, 29 were males and 43 were females, there ages ranged from 25 to 75 years.
All cases were subjected to the following careful history taking, thorough clinical examination,
laboratory investigations (CBC, LFTs, KFTs, Coagulation profile, serum amylase, serum CA
19.9), imaging (CT and/or MRI abdomen), endoscopic ultrasound examination and EUS-FNA
biopsies using the 22G or 19G needle.
Results:Validity of abdominal CT/MRI imaging, EUS, cytopathology and EUS with
cytopathology was calculated using diagnostic performance depend on sample 2x2 contingency
tables generation. Sensitivity, specificity, PPV, NPV and accuracy and their corresponding 95%
CI were calculated. P-value < 0.05 was considered statistically significant, p-value < 0.001 was
considered highly statistically significant, and p-value ≥ 0.05 was considered statistically

To study the role of MRI of hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy

S Vinoth Kumar, B. M. Monisha

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 11, Pages 9260-9266

Background: Hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy in adults and older children (i.e. not
neonates), also known as global hypoxic-ischaemic injury, is seen in many settings and
often has devastating neurological sequelae. Magnetic Resonance imaging—has the
potential to play a significant role in diagnosis and early intervention in cases of HII. In
addition, imaging studies performed in the subacute stages of injury provide information
on the severity and extent of injury and can be helpful in predicting long-term outcome.
Material and Methods: This prospective study was conducted in a tertiary care teaching
hospital, over a period of 1 year. A total of 70 patients with history of birth asphyxia were
included in the study who underwent MRI of brain and were followed up clinically at the
end of one year to assess the neurological outcome.
Result: A total of 70 patients who fulfilled the selection criteria during the study were
enrolled. Of the 70 babies, 46 were males and 24 females, which correspond to 65.7% of
male and the rest female babies. The maximum number of patients were in the age group
of <1 year which were 47.1% (n =33) of total followed by age group 2–12 months having
34.2% (n = 24) in this group and 18.5% were more than 1 year. In our study, maximum
patients, i.e., 48.5% (n = 34) were having Apgar score of 4-6 followed by ≤3 score were
32.8% and least were > 7 score were 18.5%. In HIE 2 cases, 28.5% had involvement of
corpus callosam. 27.1% had PVL, 18.5% had basal ganglia or thalamus lesion. There was
no MRI evidence of HIE in 25.7%.
Conclusion: HIE is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in the neonatal period.
MRI show characteristic pattern of brain injury and help to exclude other causes of
encephalopathy. Imaging plays an important role in early diagnosis and timely
intervention, thereby reducing the severity of neonatal brain injury.

Glioma Tumor Detection Through Faster Region-Based Convolutional Neural Networks Using Transfer Learning.

Shrwan Ram; Anil Gupta

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 4789-4815

Glioma Tumor is generally found in the brain and spinal cord. This tumor begins in glial cells that cover the nerve cells and control the function of that. The Glioma tumor is classified based on glial cells involved in the Glioma tumor formation. The tumor affects the normal activity of the patients such as loss of memory, difficulties in speech, confuse the identification of objects, and also causes difficulties to maintain the balance of the body. The early detection of Glioma tumor helps healthcare practitioners to suggest a suitable treatment for the disease. The detection of a Glioma tumor is a challenging task. Many types of approaches had been proposed by the researchers and academicians for accurately detecting the  Glioma tumor. Accurately detecting the brain tumor is still a big challenge. Because of recent advances in image processing and computer vision, healthcare professionals are using sophisticated disease diagnostic tools for disorders/disease prediction. The Neurosurgeons and Neuro-Physicians use the magnetic resonance imaging technique to identify multiple brain tumors. The approaches to computer vision play a significant role in the automated identification of different Brain tumors. This research paper explores the Convolutional neural network-based Faster R-CNN approach for the Glioma tumor detection using four pre-trained deep networks such as Alexnet, Resnet18, Resnet50, and Googlenet. The proposed approach of object detection as compared to other R-CNN approaches is more efficient and accurate having higher precision.  The proposed model detects the Glioma tumor with 99.9% accuracy. The pre-trained networks used to train the tumor detection model are Alexnet, Resnet18, and Resnet50, and Googlenet. As compare to Alexnet, resnet18, and Googlenet deep networks, the Resnet50 Pre-trained network performed well with higher accuracy of detection.