Online ISSN: 2515-8260

Keywords : Malaria

Comparison of Microscopy and Polymerase Chain Reaction Examination Results in the Detection of Malaria Parasites

Nailatul Hana; Lia Faridah; Hesti Lina Wiraswati; Jontari Hutagalung

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 10, Pages 2871-2881

Background: Microscopy remains the mainstay method for malaria diagnosis worldwide, although species misidentifications have been detected in practices due to various limitations, such as hypnozoites detection and lower parasitemia in asymptomatic malaria. Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) is a molecular diagnostic method with high accuracy in detecting species of organisms. This study was aimed to evaluate the diagnostic performance of microscopy compared to nested PCR in detecting malaria parasites.
Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted with previous data on malaria assessment in East Nusa Tenggara. More than 500 asymptomatic respondents were included by the systematic random sampling method from 5 sub-districts area in the region based on API. Microscopic assessment by thick and thin blood smears was made following protocols from the Ministry of Health, while DNA isolation was done using 200 μl fresh blood sample and nested PCR amplification protocol with specific primers of the malaria parasites species Plasmodium sp.
Results: A total of 555 specimens were collected, and 1.6% (9/555) of those were microscopy-positive and 32.6% (181/555) were detected positive by nested PCR. Of microscopy-positive samples, 33.3% (3/9) were P. falciparum and 66.7% (6/9) were P. vivax, whereas among PCR-positive samples, 31.5% (57/181) were P. falciparum, 52.5% (95/181) were P. vivax, and 16.0% (29/181) were mixed infection of both species. From this study, microscopy was found to had a slight measure of agreement (κ = 0.055) compared to nested PCR.
Conclusion: In lower parasitemia and asymptomatic malaria, the microscopic assessment may not be sensitive. Thus, this increases the need of using PCR assessment to confirm the identification of malaria parasites.

Night Jasmine (Nyctanthes arbortistis) having in vitro antimalarial activity from the leaves – a confirmation from ethnobotanical studies and traditional uses

Dr. Debasis Bisoi; Dr. Ashok Kumar Panigrahi; Dr. Lopamudra Das

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 11, Pages 6412-6423

Background: Night jasmine (Nyctanthes arbortristis or NAT) is a sacred plant (known as Parijat in Sanskrit) and commonly used traditional medicine. It was observed that the leaves of the plant are used in treating malaria. The present work has made an attempt to make ethnobotanical studies, isolation of the phytochemical constituents and mechanism of the pharmacological actions and therapeutic uses with focus on malaria. Objectives: (1) Identify the plant material for use in traditional medicine. (2)Gather laboratory evidence that the chemical constituents are comparable to standard treatment in malaria. Methods: The leaves of the plant (NAT)) were identified and the sample specimens were kept in herbarium after authentication. The phytoconstituents were identified by column chromatography. The antimalarial activities were studied. The in vitro activity of leaves of NAT was compared with chloroquine (CQ).

Geographical Aspects Of The Study Of Global Pandemies

Komilova Nilufar Karshiboyevna; ,Turdimambetov Izimbet Rakhmetovich; Ravshanov Aliqul Xudoyberdiyevich; Mahmudova Manzura Juraevna; Payzieva Madina Ulug'bek qizi

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 7, Pages 524-529

Mankind has struggled with many diseases throughout its history. Infectious diseases are especially prevalent among the population. According to its scope, such infectious diseases are called pandemics, epidemics. Among the population of Central Asia, a number of diseases, such as plague, plague, malaria, tuberculosis, and ringworm, have caused partial or mass extinction. The characteristics of the geographical distribution of these diseases largely depended on the natural and social geographical conditions of the regions, the lifestyle and traditions of the population.The effects of the Spanish flu pandemic, which has killed nearly 100 million people in the last hundred years among a wide range of diseases, have had a profound effect on the nosogeographic situation, especially in Europe and later in the Americas. Analyzes show that the deterioration of the environment, man's unlimited domination of nature, the deterioration of the ecological situation, as well as the spread of related diseases on earth pose new challenges to medical geography, which studies the causes and patterns. The rapid development of science and technology, the steady increase in human impact on nature and consequently, a number of negative changes in the natural environment have a significant impact on human health. The acceleration of the process of urbanization which in turn causes problems such: as air, water and soil pollution.

Case Report: Covid-19 And Severe Malaria Co-Infection

MuhammadJunaedi .; Sudirman Katu; Muh Ilyas; Numan Daud; SahyuddinSaleh .; HaeraniRasyid .; NurjannahLihawa .

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 8, Pages 961-968

Background:A mysterious pneumonia case was first reported in Wuhan, China in December 2019. The World Health Organization (WHO) later named this pneumonia Coronavirus Disease (Covid-19) caused by the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) virus. The massive spread of Covid-19 increases the risk of co-infection with other pre-existing pathogens including malaria
Case Report: A 32 years old woman was admitted to the hospital due to complaints of jaundice, fever, dyspneu and andominal pain. On further examination of the malaria smear, plasmodium falciparum was found in the form of trophozoites and gametocytes, the parasite count was 119,902 U/L and a nasopharyngeal PCR swab was positive for SARS CoV-2. The patient conditionimprove after administering artesunate and oseltamivir.
Discussion: Several clinical manifestations are overlapping between Covid-19 and malaria, especially extrapulmonary manifestations of Covid-19 infection, including thrombocytopenia, elevated transaminase enzymes, increased bilirubin, and impaired kidney function. Management was carried out to deal with malaria and Covid-19 simultaneously and continuously.

Recent Medications Of Hydroxychloriquine; Advances Of Aminoquinoline Drugs In Pandemic Era

Ashish sharma; Surbhi Sharma

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 7, Pages 4714-4721

The infection or contagoiuosness of a novel coronavirus found in China (2019-nCoV) is rapidly spreading and increasing worldwide. Due to the lack of effective treatment options for 2019-nCoV, various strategies are being tested all over the world. In this study, we are presented a medicinal impoertances of Hydroxy Chloroquine in the treatment of 2019-nCoV as it is having pretty much similarities with malaria in terms of primary symptoms. However not only Hydroxy Chloroquine can cure the disease, there is a need of proper vaccine for this particular virus to get control in its spread along with multi drug therapy. The present article is collectively presented a report on recent advancements in the medication application of Hydroxychloroquine