Online ISSN: 2515-8260

Keywords : adenocarcinoma


V Anantha Natarajan, M Sunil Kumar, T Naresh

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 7, Pages 4487-4496

Uncontrolled cell proliferation in lung tissues is what is known as lung cancer. Early Lung Cancer detection may hold the key to the disease's recovery. This research examines non-invasive techniques to aid with nodule detection. From the Computer Tomography (CT) pictures, it provides a Computer Aided Diagnosis System (CAD) for the early diagnosis of lung cancer nodules. The use of CAD systems aids radiologists in providing more accurate diagnoses when interpreting images. This method's main objective is to develop a CAD system for classify the nodule and using computed Tomography images to classify the lung cancer. In order to determine the optimal treatment plan for patients and their possibility of survival, convolutional neural networks can more quickly and reliably recognize and classify various kinds of lung cancer. The benign tissue, adenocarcinoma, big cell carcinoma, and squamous cell carcinoma are all considered in this work.


Dr. M. Mamatha, Dr. Swarnalatha Sripathi, Dr. Rama Devi Pyla, Dr. Jostna Devi Akarapu

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 5, Pages 334-360

Background: Prostate cancer is the second most common cancer in men and the fourth most common cancer overall. 1.4 million new cases of prostate cancer diagnosed in 2020. PSA and Gleason's score (GS) before treatment are important diagnostic and therapeutic indicators. According to studies, GS degrades tumors while PSA is not cancer-specific. The current study studies the relationship between Ki67, GS, and PSA, which is used to grade tumors and predict patient prognosis. Objectives: 1. To study the histopathology of prostate carcinoma and its variants and assign them a Gleason score as per the Gleason grading system. 2.To study Ki-67 immuno expressing in prostate carcinoma. 3. To correlate Ki-67 expression, Gleason scoring, and serum prostate-specific antigen levels in prostate carcinoma, Methods: A retrospective study enrolled 80 prostate cancer patients from Malla reddy Medical College, Hyderabad from November 2019 to April 2021.Each instance received a Gleason score and Ki67 immunohistochemistry. Ki67 expression and Gleason score were found to be related. Results: All 80 patients were diagnosed with acinar/normal adenocarcinoma-WHO. There were 36 patients with moderately-differentiated tumors (45%) , 28 with high grades (35 percent), and 16 with intermediate grades. PSA levels rose as a result of GS. GS and serum PSA levels increased in direct proportion to Ki6l abeling. Conclusion: Ki67 is a novel biomarker linked to tumor grade and pretreatment PSA levels. It can be used as a diagnostic parameter or to replace prognostic factors.

A Study of HER-2/neu Expression in Gastric Carcinoma in a Tertiary Care Hospital in North Telangana

Sravanthi Yerragolla1, T. Spandana2, Swathi Cheruku3, *Bayya Praveena4 .

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 3, Pages 3181-3193

Background: Gastric cancer is the fifth most common cancer and the 3rd most common cause of cancer related mortality worldwide. Gastric carcinoma contributes to 10% of cancer deaths worldwide with a case fatality ratio of 70%.  Despite recent advances in cancer treatment, the overall 5-year survival for patients with newly diagnosed gastric cancer is 28%. Objective: To study the HER-2/neu expression in gastric carcinoma patients in a tertiary care hospital.
Materials and Methods: The present study is a retrospective and prospective study done to assess HER2/neu protein over expression in gastric carcinomas. Excision specimens of patients with gastric carcinoma who underwent surgery were obtained from cancer hospital and research institute were included in the time bound study.
Results: 50 Gastrectomies were included in this study. The histological features correlated with HER2/neu overexpression. The youngest patient was 38 years old and the oldest was 74 years. The mean age of the patients was 57.68 years. All the cases were adenocarcinomas. Most of the tumors, i.e., 35 cases were of intestinal type of adenocarcinomas, whereas 15 cases were of diffuse type.
Conclusion: Our study found HER2/neu over expression of 10.0% in gastric cancers similar to most studies in India and the rest of the world. Additional research is required to explore role of HER2/neu as an independent prognostic factor and to confirm any existing geographic variation. It is important that pathologists and diagnostic laboratories learn and use the modified criteria for evaluating HER2/neu status in gastric /GEJ carcinomas. Large number of new specimens will need to be examined for HER2/neu status using both FISH and IHC in the days to come as trastuzumab has now been validated by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for management of metastatic gastric adenocarcinomas.

Spectrum of histopathological lesions in the prostate and their correlation with serum prostate specific antigen levels

Dr. Priyanka Rani, Dr. Francis K Sridhar, Dr. Shekhar Baweja, Dr. Nalini Calton, Dr. Rupinder Kaur

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 3, Pages 2694-2703

Background: Diseases affecting  the  prostate  include  benign  prostatic  hyperplasia (BPH), non-specific inflammatory conditions and malignancy of the prostate, are responsible for significant  morbidity  and  mortality among  ageing male patients.This study was done to study the histopathological spectrum of prostatic lesions, classify them and to correlate them with free serum PSA levels.
Material and methods:The sample size was 302. Collected data was analyzed with descriptive statistics followed by chi- square test.Tests were used to analyze the sensitivity, specificity and overall accuracy of serum PSA levels in diagnosing benign and malignant prostatic lesions. p value was calculated and considered statistically significant when p value was less than 0.005.
Results:Majority of the benign lesions had serum PSA in the range of 0-4 ng/ml.About 21% had modest elevation in serum PSA.Majority of the malignant lesions had highly elevated serum PSA levels.BPH-Less than half of the cases showed epithelial and stromal hyperplasia without prostatitis.PIN- 2 had a histology of low grade PIN and 1 had high grade PIN. Adenocarcinoma: Majority of the lesions showed discrete glandular pattern.Gleason score of 7 was the commonest pattern. The sensitivity and specificity of serum PSA in benign lesions was found to be 62% and 95% respectively and in malignant lesions was 95% and 62% respectively.
Conclusion: It was concluded that PSA cut off value >4ng/ml is a diagnostic tool for detection of adenocarcinoma prostate.


Dr. Shiping Jain, Dr.Sandeep Kumar Jain, Dr. Balwant Singh Patle, Dr. Krithika T

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 3, Pages 11138-11148

Introduction: Major salivary glands pathologies are a significant source of morbidity in
general population. The role of ultrasonography in evaluation of salivary glands masses
is become increasingly important due to availability of high frequency probe which
permit visualization of more subtle anatomical and pathological details.
Objectives: The study was conducted to determine the diagnostic role of real-time
ultrasonography& color Doppler in diagnosis of major salivary gland tumors.
Material and methods: This study was conducted in the Radiodiagnosis,
DepartmentofGajra Raja Medical College andHospitals, Gwalior (M.P.) in USG
Machine SSD4000SV (AlokaTrivitron) from August 2011 to September2012. A total 46
patients was enrolled in study after taking detailed history and relevant clinical
examination. Subsequently the patient was subjected to real time
ultrasonographyfollowed by histological examination by On-site fine needle aspiration
Results: According to the study out of 46 major salivary gland tumors, benign tumors
32(69.57%)were morecommon than malignant 14 (30.43%).The age distribution of the
patients with salivary gland neoplasm ranged from 1-80 years and majority of belongs
to the 30-70 years age group.Male : Female ratio for malignant tumors is 6:1 and equal
in benign tumors.
European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine
ISSN 2515-8260 Volume 9, Issue 3, Winter 2022
Parotid gland was the most common site accounting for 91.30% followed by
submandibular gland (8.7%) of all salivary gland tumors. On USG examination all
tumors were hypoechogenic. Most benign tumors (87.5%) had well defined borders, but
12.5% of malignant tumors also had well defined (sharp) borders. The internal
structure of tumor was not a relevant indicator of malignancy. According to the study
the commonest tumors was pleomorphic adenoma which accounted for 60.87% of all
cases followed by mucoepidermoid carcinoma( 17.4%)of all cases confirmed by
histopathological examination.
Conclusion: Ultrasonography is a highly sensitive, specific,easily available and
affordable imaging modality to assess salivary gland tumors.however it is more sensitive
for detecting benign tumors and more specific for malignant tumors.

Spectrum of prostatic lesions in a tertiary care hospital, northeast of India

Swarupa Chakma, Nabaneet Majumder, Sayandeep Nath, Sanjay Nath, Tapash Rudrapaul

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 1, Pages 804-812

Introduction: Establishing or ruling out the diagnosis of carcinoma of prostate has been
a challenging task for pathologists for many years .it was an observational study where
patients who underwent TURP procedure were studied. The present study is an attempt
to understand the histopathological spectrum of prostatic lesions and study the
demographic distribution of various prostatic lesions.
Methods: The present study includes 125 cases of prostate specimen from January 2018
to September 2021 received in the post graduate department of Pathology, Tripura
Medical College. H and E stained sections were examined. The relevant clinical details
pertaining to age, clinical complaints and microscopic details are analyzed and
compared with other similar studies.
Result: Total 125 case were studied among which 69 (55.2%) cases were found to be
consistent with BPH and 24 cases were found to be malignant lesion (19.2%). 24 cases
were found to be BPH with associated prostatitis like features, consistent with benign
prostatic lesion. High grade Prostatic Intraepithelial lesions were seen in 8 cases (6.4%).
Out of the 24 malignant cases, majority had Gleason score between 8-10. Perineural
invasion was seen in 10 out of 24 malignant cases (41.6%). All malignant lesions were
adenocarcinoma and 20 were incidental carcinoma which accounted for 16% of all
prostatic lesions. Serum prostate specific antigen levels were available in 24 cases of
prostatic adenocarcinoma cases. 21 out of 24 cases had serum prostate specific antigen
levels greater than 10 ng/ml. (87.5%). Grade Group 4 had the maximum number of
cases i.e 45.8%. Out of 125 cases, 89 (71.2%) cases were from urban areas and 36
(28.8%) cases were from rural areas. All the 24 cases with prostatic adenocarcinoma
were from urban areas.

Morphofunctional Characteristics Of The Oral Mucosa Of Experimental Rats In Experimental Carcinogenesis

Alisher I. Khazratov; Jasur A. Rizaev; Nataliya Ye. Lisnychuk; Gulsara Dj. Reimnazarova; Aziz S. Kubaev; Kamronbek J. Olimjonov

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 2, Pages 227-234

Diseases of the gastrointestinal tract are often accompanied by changes in
the oral cavity. This is largely due to morphological and functional unity of the mucous
membrane of the mouth and entire digestive tract. According to numerous publications in
recent years, at the end of the XX-beginning of the XXI century, there is a significant
increase in the number of people suffering from cancer of the colon and rectum. This
localization accounts for 15% of all initially diagnosed tumors of all localizations (30% of
them are represented by rectal cancer).


Rizaev Jasur Alimdjanovich; Khazratov Alisher Isamiddinovich; Lisnichuk Natalia Evgenyevna; Olimjonov Kamronbek Jasur ugli; Reimnazarova Gulsara Djamalovna

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 7, Pages 666-672

Recently, there has been a significant increase in the number of cancer diseases worldwide. Mortality from malignant tumors is second only to pathologies of the cardiovascular system. Oncological diseases take many lives not only among the elderly, but also among the relatively young generation.