Online ISSN: 2515-8260

Keywords : ARDS

PNEUMONIA: Natural History Laboratory Abnormality In COVID 19

Linny Luciana; July Kumalawati

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 3, Pages 2687-2694

Introduction: COVID19 is a new disease caused by the SARS CoV 2 virus which became pandemic in 2019. In October 2020, COVID 19 cases in Indonesia continued to increase, reaching 304,007 cases. The mortality rate of this disease is 3.6%. This disease shows many symptoms such as asymptomatic, fever, cough, diarrhoea, severe shortness of breath.
Case: 53 years-old man with fever for five days with cough, sore throat, and tightness. Physical examination revealed a temperature of 38 °C and bilateral lung crackles with ground-glass opacity of the right lung in pulmonary CT scan. PCR results obtained positive SARS-CoV 2.
Discussion: In the early phase of COVID19 infection, complete peripheral blood tests tended to be normal with a mild increase in CRP. When ARDS occurs, there is a significant decrease in absolute lymphocyte, and increased CRP levels. The decreased Hb levels accompanied by increased LDH is suspected hemolysis of erythrocyte. Other laboratory examination shows an increase of acute phase reactants such as D dimers, fibrinogen, and ferritin that indicate a severe inflammatory state. By the progression of the disease, laboratory abnormality such as decreased absolute lymphocytes and increased inflammatory markers happened on the 12th day after symptoms.

Immune Modulating Mechanisms Implemented To Control N-Cov Disease

Tahreem Fathima; A.S.Smiline Girija; D. Ezhilarasan

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 2551-2561

The n-CoV is a recent pandemic globally raising serious concerns on its exorbitance in both infection, transmission and mortality rate. It is an infectious disease driven by uncontrolled immune mediated inflammatory disease resulting in cytokine storms and acute respiratory respiratory syndrome. The virus affects the respiratory system and other organ systems and lower respiratory tract. Its initial symptoms include dry cough, nausea, fever, sneezing. In the virus and host interactions, both humoral and cellular immune response seem to play a vital role. Innate immunity is the first line of defence against virus invasion. Adaptive immunity also plays an important part in viral clearance via activated cytotoxic T cells that destroy virus-infected cells and antibody-producing B cells that target virus-specific antigens. With no proper medication to control the covid disease, researchers have implemented various immune mediated mechanisms to curb the viral replication and further establishment of the disease. This review thus highlights on the various immune-modulating mechanism implemented against covid disease with its limitations and challenges.