Online ISSN: 2515-8260

Keywords : Mortality

Prevalence of Congenital heart Diseases in children- An analysis of 197 patients in a tertiary care Hospital of Kerala

Dr. Shrinath G, Dr. Muhammed Basheer K T,Dr. Vidhu Ashok,Dr. Anjali T R

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 4, Pages 215-226

Background: Congenital heart disease (CHD) is one of the
commonest causes of infant mortality rate in developing countries. Early detection,
referral and treatment of infants and children with CHD contribute to the reduction
in the infant mortality rate. There are differences in the prevalence and distribution
in different parts of India. A study was conducted in a tertiary care Hospital to
know the prevalence of CHD in this state. Aim of the Study: To study the
prevalence, age and gender distribution and clinical spectrum of congenital heart
disease (CHD) among pediatric patients attending outpatient department (OPD) of
a tertiary care hospital in Kerala. Materials: A prospective cross sectional study
was carried over 36 months on children aged from newborn to 12 years and 179
children with CHD were screened, included and analyzed. Infants/ children aged 0
to 12 years with symptoms of CHD, or suspicious of CHDs were included. After
initial clinical examination and pulse oxymetry diagnoses were confirmed by
detailed 2-D Echocardiography and color Doppler studies. Two dimensional and
color Doppler echocardiography were done with Neonatal (12MHz) and Pediatric
(8MHz) sector transducer. ASD with less than 4.0 mm diameter was not included
as a CHD. If more than one lesion was observed, the defects which caused
hemodynamic imbalance or which required immediate treatment were considered
as the main CHD.

“Socio-demographic profile and treatment Outcome of Covid-19 Patients attending Covid Hospitals of Datia, M.P. INDIA’’

Adhikari P., Kumar Sanjeev, Swami Piyush, Gupta Shubhanshu, Tiwari R.

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 3, Pages 1815-1823

Background- In December 2019, a series of pneumonia cases were identified with presumptive viral origin in Wuhan, China, the virus was initially designated as the novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV), later WHO renamed  as Corona Virus Disease 2019 (COVID-19).
Objective- To describe the sociodemographic profile & Treatment Outcome of Covid -19 Patients attending Covid Hospitals of Datia district of  M.P.
Methods -it was descriptive, cross sectional observational  study  conducted among COVID-19 positive cases admitted & managed at  Covid  hospitals (DCH & DCHC) affiliated to  Government Medical College Datia ,M.P. from 1st  April 2020 to 15th  December 2020. Data was collected regarding age ,sex, Occupation, Residence and Treatment Outcome of Covid 19 patients and analysed accordingly with the help of EpiInfo software.
Results- The mean age of the patients was found 37.69±16.74 years. 65.7% of patients were belonged to a middle age group & male sex. Only 23.14% belongs to peripheral area& remaining were of urban area.  Out of total 1620 positive patients, 78.76% patients were admitted & remaining were advised for home isolation. 92.47% had been discharged &cured ,only 1.72 % patients were up referred and only 0.39 % death had been occurred among of all admitted patients.
Conclusion-As only 1.72 % patients were up referred and 0.39 % death had been occurred among of all admitted patients which shows a good quality care of covid patients and  may be also be due to mainly middle aged patients were found infected with covid -19 without any more significant co morbid conditions

External Ventriculostomy and Intraventricular Instillation Of Recombinant Tissue Plasminogen Activator For Management Of Spontaneous Intra-Ventricular Hemorrhage: A Prospective Study

Dr. Sourabh Guria,Dr. Shubhamitra Chaudhuri,Dr. Shahid Iftekhar Sadique

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 3, Pages 5892-5901

Aim: To evaluate external ventriculostomy and intraventricular instillation of recombinant tissue
plasminogen activator for management of spontaneous intra-ventricular hemorrhage.
Material and method:The present non-randomized prospective study was done in the
Department of Neurosurgery among 30 patients who underwent external ventriculostomy and
intraventricular instillation of recombinant tissue plasminogen activator at Bangur Institute Of
Neurosciences & SSKM HOSPITAL, IPGME&R, KOLKATA between April 2020 – August
2021. Various parameters studied were GOSE SCORE: 7 days------>30days------>90 days,
Ventriculitis: (0-180days) (y/n), 30 days survival (y/n), worsening hemorrhage during t/t till 72
hr. of last dose (y/n), worsening hemorrhage during t/t > 72 hr. of last dose (y/n), hydrocephalus
during follow up (y/n) and Qol (EQ5D) at 1 month and 3 months.
Results: Mortality was reported among 33.33% of the subjects after 3 months. After seven days,
good recovery was not found in any of the subject but after 1 month and 3 month, good recovery
was reported among 4 (13.33%) and 9 (30%) of the subjects respectively. After 3 months;
vegetative state, severe disability and moderate disability was found in 2, 7 and 2 subjects
respectively. There was significant decrease in clot volume (cc) after the intervention of external
ventriculostomy and intraventricular instillation of recombinant tissue plasminogen activator i.e.
it decreases from 38.23 to 8.11 after 5 days.
Conclusion:rtPAwas efficacious in decreasing the modified GOSE scoresand clot volume of all
study subjects at end of treatment. Ventriculitis was demonstrated only in six subjects

Analysis of the Association Between Serum Vitamin D Concentration and Mortality in Severe Septic Patients at a Tertiary Care Centre

Ashok Parmar

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 3, Pages 10996-11000

Background: Pathophysiologically, vitamin D deficiency has been related to inflammation
and immune dysfunction, which may be the potential reason for the increased susceptibility
of the individual to severe infection or sepsis. The present study was conducted to analyze the
association between serum vitamin D concentration and mortality in severe septic patients.
Materials and Methods: Whole blood collected was placed into the tubes containing
ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid as an anticoagulant. After completion of samples, the
concentration of serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D3 was measured by enzyme-linked
immunosorbent assay (ELISA). SPSS version 20.0 (IBM Corp., Armonk, NY, USA) was
used for data analysis. P-values less than 0.05 were considered statistically significant.
Results: In the present study a total of 250 patients were included in which 110(44%) were
females and 140(56%) were males. The prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency in critically ill
subjects with sepsis was 100% (250/250). 32% patients with non-severe sepsis,16% with
severe sepsis, and 48% with septic shock. Patients suffering from severe septic had lower
levels of vitamin D compared to those with septic shock and non-severe sepsis. 12.5%
patients with severe sepsis who had vit D3 deficiency died and 50% patients with septic
shock who had vit D3 deficiency died.
Conclusion: 12.5% patients with severe sepsis who had vit D3 deficiency died and 50%
patients with septic shock who had vit D3 deficiency died.

Study of Pulmonary Hypertension in Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease

Meroz Pillarisetty,Ganga Prasad, Aparna

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 3, Pages 11633-11650

Background:To study the prevalence of Pulmonary Hypertension (PH) in patients with Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD).
Materials and Methods: The present study assessed the prevalence of PH in 50 patients with CKD, at DR.PSIMS & RF, Chinnavutpalli, Gannavaram.
Results: The commonly affected age group in study population was 31-50 years. The mean age of patients was 48.98±12.53years. Diabetes Mellitus was present in 15 (30%) and Hypertension in 48 (96%).  Majority of the patients were in CKD stage 5, i.e.,46 (92%), CKD stage 4 -3 (6%), CKD stage 3- 1(2%). The prevalence of PH in CKD is 22 (44%). PH was not found in the patient with CKD stage 3. PH was found in 2 of the 3(66.6%) patients with CKD stage 4. Out of the 46 CKD stage 5 patients, 20 (43.4%) had PH. With reference to the severity of PH with CKD, the two patients of PH  CKD stage 4 had moderate PH . Out of the 20 patients of PH with CKD stage 5, 10 patients had mild PH, 9 with moderate PH and 1 with severe PHOn Chest X ray, descending right pulmonary artery dilatation and cardiomegaly were seen in more number of patients with PH, compared to those without PH. (p<0.001). In this study, LV systolic dysfunction was present in 18 out of 50 patients (36%). Among 22 patients with PH, it was present in 13 (59.09%). Among 28 patients without PH, it was present in 5 (17.85%). LV systolic dysfunction was significantly higher among the patients with PH compared to those without PH. The mean EF of all patients with CKD is 55.62± 9.54. The mean EF of patients with PH and without PH in the study was 50.50±9.78% and 59.64±7.26% respectively. (p<0.02). LV diastolic dysfunction was present in 41 out of 50 patients (82%). Among 22 patients with PH, it was present in 20 (90.9%). Among 28 patients without PH, it was present in 21 (75%). Prevalence of LV diastolic dysfunction was significantly higher among the patients with PH, compared to those without PH. RV dysfunction was present in 1(3.6%) and in 10 (45.5%) in patients without PH and in patients with PH respectively. Significant difference was found with RV dysfunction more prominent in patients with PH than in patients without PH (p<0.001). 64%of the patients studied had CKD of less than 6 months including 24%of new cases. 16%of the patients had CKD between 6 months and 1year. 20% had CKD of more than 1yr. In relation to PH, out of the 12 new cases of CKD,7 (31.8%) had PH and 5(17.9%)were without PH. Of the 20 patients having history of CKD less than 6 months (excluding new cases), 7 (31.8%) had PH and 13 (46.4%) were without PH. Out of the 8 patients  of CKD between 6 months and 1 year,4(18.2%) had PH and  4(14.3%)were without PH. In patients having CKD of more than 1 year, 4 (18.2%) had PH and 6 (21.4%) were without PH.
Conclusion: The study showed that PH is common in patients with CKD. Left Ventricular systolic and diastolic dysfunctions are strongly related to the outcome of these patients. Unexplained dyspnoea in patients with CKD must be evaluated for PHPulmonary Hypertension, CKD, Chest X-Ray, Left Ventricle, Mortality, ECG, 2D-Echo

Assessment of incidence of CBD injury who underwentLaparoscopic cholecystectomypatients

Dr.Nayan Pancholi, Dr.Latif Bagwan,Dr.Sandipkumar Chaudhari

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 3, Pages 584-587

Background:Laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC), one of the most commonly performed surgical
procedures worldwide is accepted as the gold standard in the treatment of symptomatic gallstones.
The present study was conducted to assess incidence of CBD injury who underwent LC.
Materials & Methods:180 patients who underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy of both genders
were included. Predictors of CBD injury were assessed based on grading of degree of difficult LC and
visualization of critical view of safety (CVS). BDI was classified according to Strasberg
Results: Out of 180, males were 110 and females were 70. Diagnosis was acute cholecystitis in 90,
chronic cholecystitis in 40, empyema gall bladder in 30 and mucocele gall bladder in 20 cases. Degree
of difficulty was mild in 46, moderate in 84, severe in 28 and extreme in 22. CVS was seen in 160.
The difference was significant (P< 0.05). Type of bile duct injury was type A in 5, type B in 1, type D
in 2 and type E4 in 3 patients. The difference was significant (P< 0.05).
Conclusion: Majority of bile duct injuries, results mainly from the surgeon’s inexperience,
misinterpretation of anatomy and poor surgical technique.



European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 3, Pages 766-771

Easily accessible, inexpensive, and widely used laboratory tests that demonstrate the severity of COVID-19 are important. Therefore, in this study, we aimed to investigate the relationship between mortality in COVID-19 and platelet count, Mean Platelet Volume (MPV), and platelet distribution width.
In total, 100 COVID-19 patients were included in this study. The patients were divided into two groups. Patients with room air oxygen saturation < 90% were considered as severe COVID-19, and patients with ≥90% were considered moderate COVID-19. Patient medical records and the electronic patient data monitoring system were examined retrospectively. Analyses were performed using the SPSS statistical software. A p-value <0.05 was considered significant.
The patients’ mean age was 64,32 ± 16,07 years. According to oxygen saturation, 38 patients had moderate and 62 had severe COVID-19. Our findings revealed that oxygen saturation at admission and the MPV difference between the first and third days of hospitalization were significant parameters in COVID-19 patients for predicting mortality. While mortality was 8.4 times higher in patients who had oxygen saturation under 90 % at hospital admission, 1 unit increase in MPV increased mortality 1.76 times.
In addition to the lung capacity of patients, the mean platelet volume may be used as an auxiliary test in predicting the mortality in COVID-19 patients.

A retrospective cohort study on laparoscopic cholecystectomy in cirrhosis patients

Dr. Faisal Mumtaz,Dr.Urooj Najami,Dr.Prabodh Bansal,Dr Gopal

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 3, Pages 2797-2803

Background:The advanced instruments like harmonic shears have made laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) a safe option. The present study determined twoyearsexperience of patients after laparoscopic cholecystectomy in cirrhosis patients.
Methods: A total of 50 cirrhotic patients underwent LC from August 2020 to February 2022. The type of surgery performed was laparoscopic cholecystectomy. The parameters recorded were,presence of adhesions,use ofharmonic devices, amount of bleeding during surgery,rate of conversion to open surgery and the reasons thereof, operative time in minutes, plasma and platelet transfusion postoperatively and duration of hospital stay .
Results:Majority of the patients were of Child-Pugh class A. The cause of cirrhosis was hepatitis C virus (HCV) in most of the patients. Biliary colic was found to be the most common presentation. Higher CTP, model for end-stage liver disease (MELD) scores, higher mean international normalization ratio (INR) value, lower mean platelet count, higher operative bleeding, higher blood, and plasma transfusion rates, longer mean operative time and postoperative hospital stays were found to be statistically significantand  correlated well with 30-day morbidities and mortalities.
Conclusion: LC could be a better surgery performed in patients with cirrhosis. However, higher CTP and MELD scores, greater operative bloodloss, largerno of  blood and plasma transfusion in units, longer operative time, lower platelet count, and higher INR values can be considered factors resulting in poor outcome. 

Neutrophilic lymphocyte ratio and lymphocyte monocyte ratio: prognostic significance in COVID 19

Dr Fayaz Ahmad Wani, Dr Aabhasha Parotra, Dr Aakriti Mahajan

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 3, Pages 2809-2818

Aim: To evaluate neutrophilic lymphocyte ratio and lymphocyte monocyte ratio as prognostic markers in COVID 19.
Material and method: The present retrospective observational studyconducted in the department of Medicine, Government Medical College, Jammu for a period of one year. The study comprised of 100 Covid 19 RT PCR positive cases admitted patient in ICU as well as Ward, in covid care centre of Government Medical College, Jammu. Patients characteristics were obtained from the hospital covid care centre satisfying inclusion criteria from electronic medical records and demographic, clinical, laboratory data were extracted included age, sex clinical features, signs and symptoms, comorbidities, exposure history, oxygen support during hospitalization, duration of oxygen support during hospitalization,imaging features of the chest (CT scoring), laboratory findings (Hemogram, Total leucocyte count, differential counts, NLR and LMR. Complete blood count including NLR and LMR collected at day of admission and day 3 of admission and documented on a standardized proforma. Two outcomes were evaluated: “discharge” or “died.”
Results:In majority (53%) of patients, ventilation given was high flow followed by bipap (21%), ventimask (19%) and ventilator (5%). Ventilation given was room air in only 2 out of 100 patients (2%). In present study, only 10 out of 100 patients (10.00%) died.Discriminatory power of neutrophil lymphocyte ratio (AUC 0.865; 95% CI: 0.781 to 0.925) was excellent and discriminatory power of lymphocyte monocyte ratio (AUC 0.791; 95% CI: 0.698 to 0.867) was acceptable. Among both the parameters, neutrophil lymphocyte ratio was the best predictor of CTSI severity at cut off point of >3.57 with 86.50% chances of correctly predicting CTSI severity.
Conclusion: It can be concluded from the results that NLR may be a rapid, widely available, useful prognostic factor in the early screening of critical illness in patients with confirmed COVID-19.

Prognostic Factors Associated with Mortality in Covid 19 Disease: A Retrospective Single Centre Institutional Study

Atul Kumar, Devendra Nargawe, Sanjay Kumar Dubey, Shivani Sinha, Neelam R. Charles

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 3, Pages 4721-4728

Background:To evaluate the association of the demographic, clinical sign and symptoms
and laboratory biomarkers in predicting the mortality in COVID-19 infected patients.
Materials and Methods: This was a single centre retrospective observational study
carried out in atertiary care centre of a tribal region of central India, which was a
referral centre for COVID-19.Parameters taken into account were physiological
parameters,symptoms at admission,radiographic findings and laboratory findings.
Results: Out of 103 deaths included in this study 76 were male and 37 females (2:1).
Mean age of the deceased were 54.90 years (18-90 years). The most common symptom
on admission was breathlessness in 92 patients (89.32%). Abdominal symptoms like
diarrhoea and vomiting were associated in 7.7 % of the deceased patients only.Most of
the patients who died were older patients having age 60 years and above (65.04 %).
Most of the patients who died had Spo2 less than 90 % on admission (85.43
%).Lymphopenia (92.23 %) was the most commonly observed finding on blood
investigations done in deceased patients followed by increased CRP level (78.64 %).
Comorbidities were present in 77 patients out of 103 patients (74.75%) included in this
study. Diabetes and hypertension were being the most common comorbidities associated
in these patients.Death was not commonly observed in patients with COVID 19
associated with respiratory diseases.
Conclusion: Identified prognostic factors can help clinicians and policy makers in
tailoring management strategies for patients with COVID-19 infectious disease while
researchers can utilize our findings to develop multivariable prognostic models that
could eventually facilitate decision-making and improve patient important outcomes.

A study on clinical profile of non traumatic intracranial hemorrhage in children in tertiary care hospital

Dr. Kalyani Srinivas, Dr.KavithaVislavath, Dr. B .SravanKumar ,Dr. P Sirisha

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 3, Pages 5646-5656

Introduction: Intracranial bleeding is abnormal accumulation of blood inside the vault of
cranium it may occur inside the brain parenchyma as intracerebral bleeding or covering
the meningeal space Intra cranial hemorrhage is rare among children but often disabling
disease leading to high morbidity and mortality.
Aim: To study the etiology, clinical profile, laboratory and radiological findings of nontraumatic
intracranial bleed in children.
Material and methods: Prospective observational study ,The study was conducted in the
Department of Paediatrics, Niloufer hospital from November 2019 - November 2021.35
Children were included in this Study. Study was based on the child’s clinical presentation,
the cause of ICH as well as radiology criteria of hematoma.
Results: The outcome after the intracranial bleeding depends on many different factors
such as size and localization of hemorrhage as well as the clinical status at the time of
presentation. Intra cranial bleed due to bleeding diathesis has better outcome because of
appropriate diagnosis and treatment of the underlying disease, in addition to early surgical
intervention when indicated. Study showed a higher frequency of complex chronic illness
as risk factor for paediatric ICH. The mortality due to paediatric ICH remains high but
risk of death may reflect the underlying risk factors for intracranial hemorrhage and not
just the risk from the hemorrhage itself.
Conclusion: All cases of liver failure should be monitored with PT, APTT and INR, timely
vitamin K should be given to prevent ICH.

Risk factors of intrauterine growth restriction in term pregnancy

Dr. Sahana PR, Dr. Jeevitha H, Dr. Prajwal M, Dr. Chandrashekar K

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 2, Pages 1620-1624

Fetal growth restriction (FGR) is a pathological condition in which a fetus has not achieved his genetic growth potential, regardless of fetal size (1) Worldwide FGR is observed in about 24% of newborns; approximately 30million infants suffer from FGR every year. The burden of FGR is concentrated mainly in Asia which accounts for nearly 75% of all affected infants. National neonatal perinatal database of India reported the incidence of FGR to be 9.65% among hospital born live birth infants. Study was conducted for all cases with clinical/ Sonological term FGR admitted under department of OBG. A detailed history as per questioner will be taken with general physical examination and investigations will be done as per requirement. The accumulated data was evaluated and statistically analyzed. In the present study 70 patients with term gestation with FGR were recruited. Maternal (74.28%) was the commonest cause followed by Idiopathic (11.43) and Placental (10%) and Fetal (4.29%) causes. Among Maternal causes Pre Eclampsia was found to be in 50% cases. Most of the patients (50.7%) required caesarean section. A total of 9 (12.86%) neonate had birth weight of <1.5 kg, 48.6% had Birth weight between 1.6 to 1.9kg, 38.5% had birth weight between 2-2.4kg and 95.8% had asymmetrical FGR, 4.2% were symmetrical. 26 (40%) neonates had morbidity with 17(24.3%) neonatal mortality with Respiratory distress syndrome (41.18%) being most common cause. No Maternal Mortality.

Assessing risk factors of 1 year mortality in patients with hip fractures: A hospital-based retrospective cohort study from a developing level 1 trauma centre in Northern India

Dr. Chethan MH,Dr.Himanshu Agrahari,Dr. Arvind Kumar Yadav, Dr.Bhaskar Sarkar, Dr.Siddharth Dubey, Dr. MD Quamar Azam

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 1, Pages 308-313

Purpose: Proximal femoral fracture is one of the major causes of morbidity and mortality in
elderly group patientswith 11-23% of mortality is reported to occur at 6 months and 22-29%
at 1 year. Despite the huge burden of osteoporosis, there is paucity of data regarding
epidemiology, risk factors and outcome of fragility hip fractures in Indian population. As
most of the published literature are from western world, we conducted the study to look for
risk factors for early-mortality in hip fracture in Indian sub-continent and compare the same
with published literature.
Methods: Total of 174 patients were available for final evaluation. Primary outcome was to
see the mortality in elderly patients undergoing operative treatment and the secondary
outcome measures were predictors of mortality in this age group with regard to age, sex,
Charlson comorbidity index, injury severity score, pre-operative ASA grading, injury-surgery
duration and length of hospital stay. Cox proportional regression hazards regression
modelling was performed to assess the effect of different variables on time of mortality.
Results: Mean age of the patients was 70.56 (± 8.05) years. Mean Charlson Comorbidity
Score was 1.68 (± 1.54; 2SD). Mean time from injury to operation time was 35.59 (±19.02; 2
SD) hours and the mean length of hospital stay was 4.78 (± 1.68; 2 SD) days. Mortality at
one-year after surgery was 18.4%.On univariate and multivariate regression analysis variables
significantly associated (p<0.05) with ‘Mortality’ are: Age, Charlson Index, Charlson Index
Category, Injury to operation time(Hours), Length of hospital stay and pre-operative ASA
Conclusion: We suggest that, without a dedicated hip-fracture protocol in a resource-poor
set-up, early aggressive management to optimize patients for surgery and surgical
intervention as soon as feasible lead to early return to pre-fracture status and reduces early

The effect of body mass index (BMI) on the mortality among patients with stroke

Salah Elsayed, Muath Othman

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 4, Pages 181-186

Stroke is considered one of the leading causesof morbidity and mortality in many
countries. Many studies investigated the outcomes after the occurrence of stroke.
Some of those research studies indicated that obesity and the increasein the
bodymass index areestablished risk factors for mortality among stroke patients.
However, the results of these studies were inconsistent.The main aim of this review
article was to examine the association between bodymass index and mortality
among stroke patients. The majority of the studies had shown a possible effect of
overweight on mortality among stroke patients; the evidence regarding the
association's presence is limited.On the other hand, the majority of the studies had
shown a protective effect of obesity (mild obesity, bodymass index between 30-35)
onreducingthe risk of mortality among stroke patients. This means underweight
stroke patients have more risk of mortality. Thus, the argument regarding the effect
of high bodymass index on mortality has been explained by the obesity paradox.
However, most of those studies were observational, and results could be attributed
to the methodological flaw. There is a need to well-designed prospective studies that
to overcome the limitation of the previous studies.

Molecular Diagnostic Methods For Viral Infections

Dhakshinya M; Smiline Girija A.S; Ezhilarasan D

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 2595-2605

Viral diagnostic tests are categorized as direct diagnosis, indirect examination (virus isolation), and serology. Molecular testing is often done to detect potent viral markers resulting from any gene or chromosomal modifications during viral replication in the host. The clinical specimen is tested specifically in direct analysis for the presence of virus particles, virus antigens or viral nucleic acids. Molecular diagnosis of viruses can be achieved from clinical samples like blood, hair, skin, amniotic fluid, or other tissue. Molecular biology techniques are considered to be the standard and confirmatory protocols in the analysis of viral DNA, RNA and protein. Molecular viral diagnosis are considered to be more specific and sensitive in preliminary viral screening and can pave the way for rapid diagnosis. However, the procedures are costly and involve automated bio-instruments to perform the same. This review thus highlights the various molecular diagnostic methods used in diagnostic virology with their limitations and challenges.