Online ISSN: 2515-8260

Keywords : Plaque

A case-control study of Apolipoprotein E Gene amongpsoriasis patients

Farhat Fatma, Dr. Jaya Jain, Dr. Ashutosh Jain, Dr. Anshuman Rai, Dr. M S Chandel

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 3, Pages 126-133

Introduction: Psoriasis is a chronic skin disease of unclear aetiology and pathogenesis
which is characterized by an inflammatory infiltration in dermis and epidermis,
proliferation of epidermal cells – keratinocytes which clinically manifests with the
formation of erythemato-squamose papules, and is often accompanied by the
engagement of joints and nails in the process of inflammation.
Materials and Methods: This is a case-control study conducted at Department of
Biochemistry, Central Research Lab and Central Clinical Lab of GMC Azamgarh. The
subjects will be selected as per the inclusion/ exclusion criteria. A detailed clinical
history including age, sex, and occupation will be collected from the patients after
obtaining written and informed consent. For ApoE: Genomic Dna is extracted from
blood using QIAamp DNA minikit. The genotypes of the APOE polymorphisms is
determine by using APOE strip assay kit based on polymerase chain reaction and
reverse-hybridization technique.
Result: A total of 380 patients who fulfilled the selection criteria during the study were
enrolled, they were divided into two groups case and control each group consist of 190
patients. Maximum number of (41.5%) patients are seen during <1 years of duration of
psoriasis followed by 1-2 years are 27.8%, 2-3 years are 22.1% and least are 4-5 years
are 1.5%. Most of the patients has plaque type of psoriasis are 88.4% followed by
Guttate 8.9% and few are Pustular and Exfoliative 1.5% and 1.0% respectively.
Severity of psoriasis is mild 17.8%, moderate 48.4% and severe 33.6%. Apolipoprotein
E alleles in cases are𝜀3 83.1% followed by 𝜀4 12.1% and 𝜀2 4.7%. On the other hand, in
control group 𝜀3 94.2% and 𝜀4 10%.
Conclusion: Apolipoprotein E may be used as a marker to predict those patients with
psoriasis who are at risk of dyslipidemia and probably CVD. Based on the results of our
study, we recommend regular monitoring of patients with psoriasis for the presence of
comorbidities which have a definite adverse effect on both psoriasis and the CVS.

Colour Doppler EvaluationofExtracranial Carotid Vessels in Patients of Coronary Artery Disease

Mandakini Keesara, Madhavi Thatipamula

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 3, Pages 10013-10021

Background:Carotid disease i s a common finding in patients with CAD & its presence
is associated with worse clinical outcomes, IMT provides incremental value over the
traditional risk factors in predicting cardiovascular events. Ultrasonography of the
carotid arteries is easily available, cost effective, non-invasive method ofevaluation. The
purpose of the present study is to evaluate the severity of atherosclerosis in extracranial
carotid vessels in patients diagnosed of coronaryartery disease.
Materials and Methods: The present study included 30patientsdiagnosedascoronary
artery disease by coronary angiogram. The conclusions of coronary angiogram were not
made available to theradiologist. Thepatients included in the study were subjected to
gray scale &color duplex examination of extracranial carotid arteries. The presence &
severity of atherosclerotic disease in the extracrani al carotid vessels will be assessed
interms of increased IMT and plaques.Luminalnarrowing andspectral wave pattern
were evaluated.
Results: Among the 30patients examined, 25patients hadcarotiddisease in the form of
increased IMT inone ormore ofthe examined vessels. Highest number of plaques were
noted in the carotid bulb followed by internal carotid artery. Most of the examined
plaques had uniform surface and were predominantly echolucent. The severity of
coronary disease i s correlated with the carotid atherosclerosis.
Conclusion: With the increase in the number of coronary vessels involved, there was an
increase in the percentageofpatientswithcarotiddiseaseinthe form of increased IMT or
plaque. There was also increase in the percentage
ofpatientswithcarotiddiseasewithincreaseintheseverity ofcoronary stenosis.



European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 1083-1089
DOI: 10.31838/ejmcm.07.09.111

Introduction: The role of Color Doppler USG and MRA in the evaluation of extracranial carotid arteries in stroke patients and to detect the atherosclerotic plaque and to characterize the atherosclerotic plaque with the help of Doppler ultrasound and MRA is described in this purpose of study.

Materials and Methods: NASCET Grading of percentage of stenosis, Doppler ultrasound was done and compared with MR Angiography TOF sequence and IV contrast in detection of plaque, plaque characterization and percentage of stenosis.

Results: Males are seen to be affected grossly more than females. Systemic hypertension is found to be the most common risk factor associated with stroke and the least was found to be ischemic heart disease. The right side is seen to be more commonly affected by atheromatous plaque followed by left side, with less bilateral involvement. ICA was found to be the most commonly involved site. Most of the cases had no significant stenosis, only few cases showed significant stenosis with hemodynamic changes. Homogenous soft plaques were found to be common than calcified and ulcerated plaques.
Conclusion: Both modalities of ultrasound and MR Angiography the advantage of endarterectomy in symptomatic patients is clearly seen with more percentage of stenosis.  In combination with MRI, Doppler USG has shown to be a safer, non-invasive and precise way of diagnosing and measuring an extracranial component of carotid disease and thereby helping to accurately treat it.

Association Of Dental Plaque And Periodontal Diseases Among Outpatients - A Record Based Study

Chris Noel Timothy; L. Leelavathi; Suresh V

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 3037-3109

Aim:The aim of this study was to associate plaque and periodontal diseases among outpatients. Materials and methods:This was a comparative, descriptive study, where all the data of the patients who reported to the dental clinics in saveetha dental college, SIMATS, Chennai, India, was obtained from the department of public health dentistry. Patient records of plaque index score and periodontal index scores between June 2019 and March 2020. were reviewed and analysed from April - June, 2020. Data was collected and tabulated. The collected data was further analyzed, recorded in microsoft excel software and was subjected to statistical analysis using IBM SPSS statistics analyzer.Results:
The total sample size of the current study was 158 cases. The most common age group that was observed was 36 to 50 years with 43.7 %. A male predilection was seen with males making up 63.9 % of the study population. Most commonly seen periodontal index score interpretation was established destructive periodontal disease with 51.9 %. Most prevalent plaque score interpretation was a fair plaque score with 55.1 % of the population. It was also observed that a fair plaque score was more commonly present in established destructive periodontal disease in 59.7 % of the cases. In this study we observed that there was a significant relation between the plaque and periodontal index scores among outpatients. [p value < 0.05 ] [ p = 0.008] obtained through chi square test.
Conclusion:Within the limitations of the current study, we observed that fair plaque score was found to be more common prevalent among participants with established periodontal disease and this association was not statistically significant.