Online ISSN: 2515-8260

Keywords : Human immunodeficiency virus


AWARENESS OF ANTI RETROVIRAL DRUGS IN HIV AMONG DENTAL STUDENTS

P.Kuzhalvai Mozhi; Dhanraj Ganapathy

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 473-484

INTRODUCTION:The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is grouped to the genus Lentivirus within the family of Retroviridae, subfamily Orthoretrovirinae .On the basis of genetic characteristics and differences in the viral antigens, HIV is classified into the types 1 and 2 (HIV-1, HIV-2) . Before 1996, few antiretroviral treatment options for HIV-1 infection existed. The clinical management of HIV-1 largely consisted of prophylaxis against common opportunistic pathogens and managing AIDS-related illnesses. AIM : To assess the knowledge and awareness of antiretroviral drugs in HIV patients among dental students. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A cross sectional questionnaire was designed and distributed to 100 dental students. Questionnaire includes email address, questions aboutART, objectives of ART, group of antiretroviral drugs and newer drug for treating HIV infection. Data was collected, statistically analysed and results were obtained. RESULTS: Among the study population, majority (90%) aware of antiretroviral therapy (ART) whereas 9% of the study population not sure about antiretroviral therapy and 1% of the study population not aware of antiretroviral therapy. CONCLUSION: The findings observed in our study showed that awareness and knowledge of antiretroviral drugs for HIV patients among dental students were high. But, dental students were not aware of recent drug approved for adult patient living with HIV who tried multiple medications and whose HIV infection cannot be successfully treated.

AWARENESS OF STRUCTURAL BIOLOGY OF HIV AMONG DENTAL STUDENTS

P.Kuzhalvai Mozhi; Dhanraj Ganapathy

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 491-503

INTRODUCTION: The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is grouped to the genus Lentivirus within the family of Retroviridae, subfamily Orthoretrovirinae .On the basis of genetic characteristics and differences in the viral antigens, HIV is classified into the types 1 and 2 (HIV-1, HIV-2). The HIV genome consists of two identical single-stranded RNA molecules that are enclosed within the core of the virus particle. The genome of the HIV provirus also known as proviral DNA, is generated by the reverse transcription of the viral RNA genome into DNA, degradation of the RNA and integration of the double-stranded HIV DNA into the human genome. AIM : To assess the knowledge of structural biology of HIV among dental students. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A cross sectional questionnaire was designed and distributed to 100 dental students. Questionnaire includes email address,questions aboutstructure of HIV, genes and enzyme associated with HIV. Data was collected, statistically analysed and results were obtained. RESULTS: Among the study population, majority (82%) aware that HIV belongs to genus Lentivirus whereas 18% of the study population told that HIV belongs to genus retrovirus. Among the study population, majority (80%) aware that HIV genome contains 3 structural genes whereas 18% of the study population told that HIV genome contains 2 structural genes and 1% of the study population told that HIV genome contains 1 structural gene. CONCLUSION: The results observed in our study showed that awareness of structural biology of HIV among dental students were high. Dental students were also aware of enzymes, structural and non structural genes associated with HIV.

KNOWLEDGE OF SUPERINFECTION IN HIV INDIVIDUALS AMONG DENTAL STUDENTS AND PRACTITIONERS

P. Kuzhalvai Mozhi; Dhanraj Ganapathy

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 549-561

INTRODUCTION: Superinfection is highly relevant to the disciplines of public health and immunology because it indicates that primary infection may provide only limited cross-immunity against re-exposure to a new strain of the virus. Development of a prophylactic vaccine may be more challenging if superinfection with a particular virus is common.HIVsuperinfection occurs when an HIV-infected individual becomes re-infected with a new phylogenetically distinct viral HIV strain. AIM: Aim of the study is to assess the knowledge of superinfection in HIV individuals among dental students and dental practitioners. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A cross sectional questionnaire was designed and distributed to 105 dental students and practitioners. Questionnaire includes email address, year of study, and questions about knowledge of superinfection in HIV individuals and various methods of detecting superinfection in HIV individuals. Data was collected, statistically analysed and results were obtained. RESULTS: Among the study population, majority of the study population (91.4%) aware that superinfection can occur in HIV individuals, whereas 7.6% of the study population not sure about the superinfection and 1.9% of the study population not aware of superinfection that occur in HIV individuals. CONCLUSION: Most of the dental students and dental practitioners (91.4%) were aware of superinfection in HIV individuals. The results observed in our study showed that most of the dental students (third year, final year, intern) aware about dual infection, types of dual infection, difference between superinfection and coinfection and various diagnostic assays for superinfection in HIV individuals.

The Effect Of Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapyon Lipid Profileof Hiv Patients

Vera Bahar; Andi Makbul Aman; Sudirman Katu; Syakib Bakri; Haerani Rasyid; Husaini Umar; Risna Halim; Arifin Seweng

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 8, Pages 953-960

Background:The widespread use of highly active retroviral therapy (HAART) has indicated a dramatic reduction in impairment due to immunodeficiency. Several studies have shown that an adverse event of HAART on dyslipidemia and insulin resistance. This study aimed to assess changes in lipid profiles after HAART.
Methods:A prospective cohort study with a consecutive sampling method consists of 59 HIV-infected patientsreceiving HAART at Dr. Wahidin Sudirohusodo Hospital, Makassar, Indonesia, from March-September 2020. Lipid profiles were measured at the initial time and after three months of HAART. The drug regimen was divided into two groups: Regimen 
group 1 (tenofovir, lamivudine, efavirenz), and another regimen group (consist of 4 regimen group combination: zidovudine, lamivudine, efavirenz; tenofovir, emtricitabine, lopinavir/ritonavir; tenofovir, lamivudine, nevirapine, and tenofovir, lamivudine, rilpivirine). ANOVA paired t-test and chi-square test were used for statistical analysis(it is significant if p is<0.05).
Results:The mean age of the subjects was 32.1 ± 6.6 years old. About 76.3% of subjects were male. Regimen 1 was used by 88.1% of the subjects and another regimen only 11.9% of the subjects. There were 27 subjects (45.8%) were underweight. The proportion of subjects with lipid abnormalities after 3 months of HAART significantly higher in LDL-c and TG level (P= 0.002 and 0.021). Regimen group1 showed increased levels of total cholesterol (TC), LDL-c, and TG (P = 0.037, 0.041, and 0.001) after HAART.
Conclusion:Highly active retroviral therapy is associated with lipid profile changes in HIV patients after 3 months of therapy.

Correlation of CD4 Count andNeutrophil-Lymphocyte Ratio in Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (HIV-AIDS)Patients

Kartika Handayani; Sudirman Katu; Syakib Bakri; Risna Halim; Andi Makbul Aman; Haerani Rasyid; Hasyim Kasim; Arifin Seweng

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 8, Pages 985-993

Background: Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) is an RNA virus that causes a decrease in the immune system and destroys specific white blood cells called T-helper lymphocytes or Cluster of Differentiation 4 (CD4); CD4 is a parameter in HIV-AIDS patients while NLR is a simple parameters that were used to assess inflammatory status.
Purpose: This study aims to determine the relationship between CD4 and NLR levels in HIV-AIDS patients.
Methods: This is an observational study with a cross-sectional design conducted in September 2019-September 2020. The study populations were all HIV patients that hospitalized and outpatient at Dr. Wahidin Sudirohusodo Hospital and his network hospital. Data were analyzed descriptively to found out the association between CD4 and NLR levels in HIV-AIDS patients using the Spearman trial.  Results: A total of 150 subjects, consist of 62 (41.3%) subjects at age 30-39 years, 122 (81.3%) male subjects, 108 (72%) subjects who had PEM nutritional status, and 102 subjects (68%) subject with CD4 count <50. Based on the Spearman test, there is negative correlation of CD4 and NLR in HIV-AIDS patient.
Conclusion: There are significant negative correlation between CD4 and NLR in HIV-AIDS patients at Dr. Wahidin Sudirohusodo Makassar, which higher NLR correlates with the lower value of CD4..