Online ISSN: 2515-8260

Keywords : E. coli

Prevalence Of Asymptomatic Bacteriuria In The Three Trimesters Of Pregnancy In A Tertiary Care Hospital Of North India

Dr Gaurav Kumar; Dr Ranvijay Singh; Dr Snehanshu , Shukla; Dr Anand Shukla; Amit Kumar Singh; Dr Satyajeet Verma; Dr D.K. Singh

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 7, Pages 1768-1774

Introduction:Asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnancy can lead to complications like urinary tract infections (UTI), pyelonephritis, pre-eclampsia, toxaemia, low birth weight, intra uterine growth retardation, preterm labour, preterm premature rupture of membrane and post-partum endometritis. There is insufficiency of data regarding prevalence, causative organism and antibiotic sensitivity pattern in all three trimesters of pregnancy. Thus to prevent the complications screening for ASB has been suggested for all pregnant women attending antenatal clinics.
Aims:To determine the prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria in three trimesters of pregnancy at a tertiary care hospital of north India.
Materials and Methods: All asymptomatic pregnant females attending the antenatal clinic at district hospital of Barabanki were included in the study except those with symptoms of UTI such as dysuria, urgency, frequency & fever. Isolation and identification were done as per standard laboratory protocol. Antimicrobial susceptibility test was done as per CLSI guidelines.
Results: In this study, 900 pregnant females were screened for ASB out of which 87 (9.6%) were culture positive.The prevalence of ASB was 10.24% (39 out of 381) in primigravida, 10% (30 out of 300) in secundigravida and 5.55% (9 out of 162) in gravida 3 and 15.78% (9 out of 57) in gravida 4. Theculture positivity associated with the gestational agewas found to be 24.13% (21) in the 1st trimester, 34.48% (30) in the 2nd trimester and 41.37% (36) in the 3rd trimester. Majority (75.87%) of the culture positive isolates were gram negative viz, E.coli(34.48%), Klebsiella(24.14%) and Proteus(17.24%).
Conclusion: Routine antenatal urine cultures should be done periodically in every trimester in order to screen ASB and appropriate treatment should be provided along with general health education regarding personnel hygiene and habits to avoid further complications specially to the 1st trimester OPD patients as they are found to be the most affected group in this study.

Prevalence of ESBL producing bacteria in recurrent UTI of diabetics: An Original Research

Dr Prathish Kumar, Dr Raveendran SR, Dr Saranya R, Dr Archana Mukunda

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 7, Pages 2458-2467

Introduction: Many Gram negative bacteria are multi resistant as they produce ESBLs which breaks down the ring in the antibiotics there by rendering them ineffective. Infections caused by ESBL can be of great consequences even with common infections like urinary tract infections. Timely detection of drug resistant bacteria is of outmost importance as it plays a role in treatment approach and fatality. 
Materials and methods: 5ml of Clear midline stream urine was collected from 164 patients. The urine samples were careened for bacterial isolates and the presence of ESBL producers were confirmed by combination disc method and tested for antibiotic sensitivity and resistance.
Results: A total of 164 urine samples from 82 males and females were collected. We found that 58 females and 32 males had recurrent UTI. 43 and 38 isolates of ESBL producing bacteria were found by combination disc method in urine samples of females and males respectively. Out of 81 isolates of ESBL producers 43 were from E coli and 20 were from K pneumoniae.    
Conclusion: We found that E coli is the largest producer of ESBL in urine samples of patients with diabetes. ESBL isolates were found more in female urine samples than in males. There was a strong positive association of levels of diabetes with ESBL production. The ESBL were highly sensitive to amaikacin and nitrofurantoin but resistant to 3rd generation cephalosporin. 

Clinical profile of patients with liver abscesses admitted to a tertiary care hospital

Dr. Ajith MB, Dr. Niyaz Ahmed, Dr. Shrinidhi B Joshi

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 2, Pages 2086-2090

In Asian populations, Kiebsiella pneumoniae is the most frequent pathogen associated with cryptogenic PLA‘s. Diabetes mellitus is suggested to be an important risk factor, but the pathogenesis is still unclear. E. coli is the most common pathogen in Western countries, in both monomicrobial and polymicrobial isolates, followed by Streptococcus milleri. Anaerobes may also be cultured from PLA‘s and Bacteroides spp. are the most common isolated organism. After obtaining approval and clearance from the institutional ethics committee, the patients fulfilling the inclusion criteria will be enrolled for the study after obtaining informed consent. Case record form with follow up chart. All cases had undergone thorough history and detailed clinical examination at the time of admission. Total and differential leukocyte counts was measured with an auto-analyzer. In this study it is found that liver abscess presents with most common presentation as pain abdomen and fever. In this study it is found that fever, loose stools are presenting features of liver abscess in most of the individuals along with pain abdomen.

Coliphages Lytic; as a potential biological control agent against E. coli (O157:H7) in a mouse model.

Nidham M. Jamalludeen; Hekmat K. Atea; Hazim T. Thwiny

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 1306-1317

The aim of this study was to isolate and characterize the phage for use as a potential
biological control agent against Escherichia coli O157: H7. A standard strain of E coli O157:
H7 (NCTC 12900, China) was used to isolate the lytic phage from bovine faeces and raw
wastewater. The spot-assay test was used to check phage activity. Characterization of phage
isolates included phage resistance to acidity and alkalinity, electron microscopy and PCR
assay for stx1, stx2, and cI genes. Isolate phages were tested where a cocktail was
administered to treat mice that was given a single oral dose (108 CFU) of Escherichia coli
(O157: H7) (NTCC 12900). Three phages (P1, P3, P4) were successfully isolated from the
sewage samples as they showed strong lytical activity against E. coli O157: H7 (NCTC 12900).
The P1 and P4 phages had icosahedral head and a long, flexible, thin, inelastic tail with the
tail fibers while the P3 phage had a less rigid, long and relatively thick tail with the tail fibers.
All phages found are resistant to pH 4-9. The PCR results revealed the absence of genomic
coding for stx1, stx2, and cI in the isolated phages. All mice treated with the phage gave a
negative result for culture of Escherichia coli O157: H7.

Antimicrobial Activity Of Aloe Vera And Opuntia Ficus Extract Against Certain Pathogenic Bacteria

Lina Qays yaseen; Sura Hameed Nayyef; Nadia Ibraheem Salih; Mohammed Ahmed Mustafa

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 422-428

The aim of current study is detect the activity role of Aloe vera and Opuntia ficus extract against certain pathogenic bacteria and evaluation of Aloe vera and O. ficus extract against certain pathogenic bacteria inhibition in vitro. 100 samples were obtained from patients with different diseases at age 6 Mon. to 65 years from both genders. This study was carried out in Lab. of Biology Dept., Science College/Tikrit University, at the period from 1st of June 2019 to end of January 2020. The antimicrobial activity was performed with the agar well diffusion method. The results show the ability of Aloe vera for inhibition of bacteria according on concentration and the concentrations of 100 was caused in inhibitory effect on E. coli, Acinetobacte, S. aureus, S. epidermidis and S. haemolyticus isolates at diameter 13, 12, 11, 9.8 and 15 mm respectively. While, Opuntia ficus extract at 100% concentration was caused in inhibitory effect bacteria isolates at diameter 10, 9.7, 8.2, 7 and 12 mm respectively. The results also show Aloe vera was found to be able for inhibition of bacteria concentration of 40% was caused in inhibitory effect on E. coli, Acinetobacte, S. aureus, S. epidermidis and S. haemolyticus isolates at diameter 14, 12, 11, 9 and 15 mm respectively. While, Opuntia ficus extract at 40% concentration was caused in inhibitory effect bacteria isolates at diameter 11, 10, 8, 7 and 13 mm respectively, while other concentrations 10%, 20, 30% show less inhibitory effect compare with 100% and 40% concentrations

Synthesis, And Applications Of Copper Oxide Nanoparticles : An Overview

Anupam Kumar; Deepak Kumar

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 7, Pages 3890-3893

Nanoparticles are effective material for modern day technology. Copper oxide nanoparticles due to their vast applications prominently used in various fields. In the present review paper we have reported the synthesis of copper oxide nanoparticles by different methods. Apart for that we have discussed the various applications of the copper oxide nanoparticles in MRI, biological and solar cell applications.