Online ISSN: 2515-8260

Keywords : rural

Perception of COVID 19 vaccination in rural population of Maharashtra: After one year of vaccine introduction

Aghav Shridhar B, Dahire Prashant L, Bhondwe Meghraj R, Kendrekar Prasad P, Wadiyar Shweta S

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 7, Pages 6775-6780

Background: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has rapidly become a global pandemic taking more than 1.7 million lives. Many developed countries had started their vaccination drive, India is not far behind but still not much is known about the willingness to get vaccinated in India.1 Due to the COVID-19 pandemic, the world faced a novel infectious disease, for which there currently is no treatment or herd immunity2. The pandemic poses a serious threat to our health and well-being (WHO, 2020) and researchers are racing to develop and test vaccines against COVID-19 (Callaway, 2020).3
Aim: To determine Perception of covid 19 vaccination in rural population of Maharashtra: after one year of vaccine introduction.
Objectives: 1.To study Perception of covid 19 vaccination in rural population of Maharashtra after one year of vaccine introduction. 2. To study the socio-demographic profile with comorbid status of study participants.
Material and Methods: A cross-sectional study carried out among 189 peoples coming to vaccination center as per inclusion & exclusion criteria in SRTRGMC, Ambajogai city (Maharashtra) from May 2022 to June 2022.
Results and Conclusion: Out of total 189 study participants majority of the participants in the study were from age group 30-50 years i.e. 89 (47.5%) and least were >50 years of age group i.e.36 (19.05%), Male and female participants were 96 (50.80%) and 93 (49.20%) respectively, 146 (77.25%) were Married, 174 (92.07%) were Hindu by religion, 115 (60.86%) were from Nuclear family, and 80 (42.32 %) were belonging to Class III Socio-economic status, Least i.e. 4.24% participants were having comorbidity. Over all perception of the participants in this study towards covid 19 vaccines was positive with sound knowledge regarding the covid 19 vaccines.

A comparative study of pre-sleep activities affecting the sleep of rural and urban adolescents in Tumkur district

Dr. Vidya MP, Dr. Karthik S, Dr. Ruchi Dhar

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 5, Pages 377-381

Background: Sleep affects mental, emotional and physical wellbeing of an adolescent. On an average for adequate development an adolescent should sleep for at-least 8 to 10 hours per day.
Objectives: To study the pre-sleep activities affecting the sleep of rural and urban adolescents.
Methods: A cross-sectional questionnaire-based school survey was designed with a sample size of 992 for the adolescents aged between 10 to 16 years of age. Children with illnesses that affected their sleep were excluded from the study. A pre-designed questionnaire was distributed to each of them. Later the data was tabulated in Microsoft excel and statistical analysis was done using software SPSS 22.0.
Result: On comparing various factors that affect sleep, it was found that 27.62% of the subjects consumed beverages like tea and coffee before sleep, 42.64% used mobile phones before sleep, 58.06% watch television late at night, 41.73% consume dinner late in the night i.e., after 10 pm and 28.53% have sleep disturbance due to exam stress and fear. The use of mobile phones before sleep and late-night dinners was more among the adolescents residing in the urban areas compared to those in the rural areas which was statistically significant (p<0.0001).
Conclusion: Pre sleep activities have a major impact on the quality of sleep, hence addressing them is essential.

Comparative Study of Carrying Angle Between Rural and Urban areas of Rajasthani population

Vaibhav Saini, Vimal Modi, Pawan k. mahato

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 4, Pages 568-572

The elbow joint is formed between the humerus in the upper arm and the radius and ulna in the
forearm and allows the hand to be moved towards and away from the body. When the arm is
extended forward, the humerus and forearm are not perfectly aligned a deviation occurs laterally
towards the long axis of the arm, which is referred as the “carrying angle”. The present study
includes 200 (100 rural and 100 urban) healthy peoples of rural and urban areas of Rajasthan
region of age group 18-40 years were selected. Carrying angle was measured by manual
goniometer made of flexible clear plastic having both the fixed and movable arms. From the
study it was found that mean carrying angle was 12.40º±2.23º in males and 12.95º±2.58º in
females of rural areas. The mean Carrying angle was found to be 10.15º±1.66º in males and
10.40º±1.81º in females in urban areas. Mean Carrying angle of male & female were found to be
greater in rural areas than in urban areas and differences were statistically highly significant
(p<0.01). The data obtained in our study may be useful in anthropological research, forensics,
genetic research, as well as in medical clinical practice.


Dr. Ajitha Reddy Edula,Dr. GJ Archana,Dr. Patruni Manoj

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 4, Pages 1961-1965

Introduction: Dengue is a mosquito-borne viral disease that has rapidly spread in all regions of WHO in recent years. Dengue virus is transmitted by female mosquitoes mainly of the species Aedes aegypti. These mosquitoes are also vectors of chikungunya, yellow fever and Zika viruses. Dengue causes a wide spectrum of disease. This can range from subclinical disease (people may not know they are even infected) to severe flu-like symptoms in those infected. Although less common, some people develop severe dengue, which can be any number of complications associated with severe bleeding, organ impairment or plasma leakage. Aims and objectives of this study are to know the prevalence of acute dengue viral infection in cases presenting with clinical features suggestive of Dengue through seroanalysis at Kamineni Hospital, Narketpally, Telangana.
Materials & Methods: This study is a hospital based cross-sectional study conducted in the year 2018-2019 in the Department of Microbiology,Kamineni Hospital, Narketpally, Telangana state from August 2018 to March 2019. A total of 120 blood samples collected from patients admitted in Kamineni Hospital with clinical features suggestive of Dengue fever. The serum samples were tested for IgM antibodies for dengue virus by dengue IgM capture ELISA. All the patients’ serum samples were tested for dengue IgM antibodies by IgM capture ELISA. This test is a solid phase immunoassay, based on an immunocapture principle.
Data analysis: The data was spread over excel sheet and the results were expressed as percentages and represented with tables wherever required.
Results: 72 were males and 48 were females, most of the cases were of the 10-20 age group. Most of the cases reported were from the young age groups.52 samples were positive for IgM antibodies to Dengue. More number of positive cases is among the males. The common clinical features among all the patients admitted was fever (100%) followed by headache (n=96, 80%), arthralgia (n=93,80%). The prevalence of dengue was found more among the rural population (n=33, 49.2%) when compared to the urban population (n=19, 35.8%).
Conclusion: The prevalence of dengue infection was more among 0-10yrs age group (48.2%).A significant association was observed between dengue seropositivity and the clinical presentation of the study population i.e., hepatosplenomegaly, conjunctival congestion, skin rash, retro bulbar pain and hemorrhagic manifestations.

Study Of The Prevalence Of Some Intestinal Parasites And Its Effect On Some Blood Parameters Aspect Among Children Patients Of Al Muthanna Province / Iraq

Farhan A. Obiead; Eqbal A. Gatea; Farah J. Alhnon

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 524-534

The present study was carried out in Al Muthanna province through the period from June, 2017 to May, 2018. A (551) and (566) of stool samples were collect from urban and rural respectively from children under 12 years. The percentages of prevalence in urban and rural monthly changes (highest and lowest) were: Entamoeba histolytica (urban: 21.41%, rural: 23.49%, and total: 22.47%, urban: 28.12% in July, 5.0% in January, rural: 31.74% in June, and 5.0% in January). Giardia lamblia (urban: 21.41%, rural: 27.20 and total: 24.35, urban: 31.03% in June, 5.0% in January, rural: 36.50 in June, 0.0% January) and Enterobius vermicularis (urban: 12.15%, rural 21.55%, and total: 216.92%, urban: 15.51% in June, 5.0% January, rural 29.03 in July, 0.0% in January) respectively. The incidence according to the age and sex of children was: E. histolytica (10-24% in male), (18-24% in female), G. lamblia (13-12% in male and female), the highest infection at age groups (3-6), (6-9) in both sexes of the two parasites, and E. vermicularis (13-12% males and females), the most affected at age group (3-6). There is a significant effect of age and sex of incidence at (0.01). The mean ± standard deviation (SD) of hemoglobin (Hb), packed cell volume (PCV) and white blood cell (WBCs) for (20) patients and (20) control were as following: E. histolytica (Hb 9.88 ±0.455, PCV 31.61±1.359, WBCs 9.55 ±2.81), G. lamblia (Hb 9.71±0.519, PCV 31.12 ±1.549 and WBCs 7.94±1.117) and E. vermicularis (Hb 9.62± 0.423, PCV 30.84 ±1.265 and WBCs 8.22± 0.767) and control group (Hb 11.01±2.597, PCV 36.73± 0.475 and WBCs 7.41±1.179). Statistical analysis showed a significant effect of the three parasites on the level of Hb at (0.05), PCV and WBCs at (0.01).

Lived Experience Of Rural Indian Women With Low Socioeconomic Backgrounds Who Have Undergone Mastectomies For Breast Cancer

Saranya Sundarraju; Veenavani Nallepalli; Ragunathan S; Karthikeyan Perumal; Sankar R; Prasanna G; Balamurugan G; Krishnakumar .

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 8, Pages 4761-4772

Back ground / Purpose
Breast cancer is now the most common cancer among women in most urban areas in India and the second most common in the rural areas. The aim of the study was to examine the lived experiences of rural women with low socioeconomic backgrounds who have undergone mastectomies for breast cancer.
Method: Using a phenomenological method, semi-structured interviews were conducted that asked about knowledge, challenges, coping and spirituality with 23 rural women from low socio-economic status and agricultural backgrounds. The interviews were analyzed for themes that described their experiences. Several themes emerged from the data. These included ignorance about the disease, feelings of guilt, financial crisis, fear of change in intimate relationships, importance of spirituality, poor support systems and financial hard-ship.
Conclusion: In India, there are very few cancer studies on rural populations yet the incidence of cancer in this population is increasing. Future studies need to focus on the rural population in order to educate them about the disease and to assist access to treatment, and psychological support. Emotional distress and lack of knowledge could be addressed by psychosocial education. Community based approaches are needed to develop culturally appropriate interventions empowering the women and enhancing their self –efficacy.


Dr. Ashish D. Ghurde; Dr. Priti R. Desai; Dr. Sudhindra Baliga; Dr. Rajni Gurmule; Dr. Amol Deshpande

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 7, Pages 1948-1957

Impacted teeth / Unerupted teeth or malalignment of teeth are common problems seen in the children, lack of awareness on dental care is a serious issue in India. As compared to the urban population, the unawareness is significantly observed in the rural population. Also the environmental factors, nutritional status & socioeconomic condition may be the predisposing factors in permanent dentition.While doing the Prakritiparikshan under various aspects, Danta is also considered for deciding the prakriti i.e Vataj, Pittaj and Kaphaj. However, there is mention of relation of eruption pattern of Danta and Prakriti. Objective :Comparison of the eruption pattern of permanent dentition in rural and urban children with respect to Prakriti. Material and Method : A cross sectional observational study was conducted wherein total 210 participants were taken, which included 105 participants each from rural and urban region. As mentioned in methodology, obtained data through observational study was statistically analysed for comparison of eruption pattern of permanent dentition in rural and urban children with respect to Prakriti. Result: The results were interpreted and it was found that no significant difference was found between the eruption pattern of permanent dentition. No association was found with respect to Prakriti in rural an urban area. Conclusion : It is concluded that, no significant difference was observed in the rural and urban children in regard to the eruption of permanent dentition. No association between eruption pattern of permanent dentition and Prakriti was established.