Online ISSN: 2515-8260

Keywords : examination


“ROLE OF RAISED SERUM BILIRUBIN LEVELS IN THE PREDICTION OF APPPENDICULAR PERFORATION”

Mandapati Mallikarjuna Reddy, Vanga Devi Harsha

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 5, Pages 94-114

Background: Given the foregoing, the aims of the present study were to (1) establish whether hyperbilirubinemia is associated with acute appendicitis; (2) evaluate its validity as a diagnostic marker for acute appendicitis; and (3) establish whether elevated bilirubin levels might predict appendicular perforation. The goal of this study is to determine whether or not preoperative serum bilirubin levels are useful for diagnosing appendicular perforation. The goals of this study were to (1) determine whether serum bilirubin is associated with acute appendicitis, and (2) evaluate its usefulness as a diagnostic marker for this illness. For the purpose of determining whether or not elevated serum bilirubin levels can be used as a predictor of appendicular perforation.
Results: Eighty individuals who were diagnosed with acute appendicitis or appendicular perforation and needed immediate appendectomy were included in our analysis. Subjects were given proper resuscitation prior to participation in the study. In order to collect and record patient data, we employed the standard proforma. Patients with complex appendicitis often require a longer recovery time (9.5 days) than those with acute appendicitis (5.5 days). The postoperative diagnosis is statistically significantly related to the length of hospital stay (p0.0001). This highlights the need for a novel diagnostic aid for acute appendicitis. Hyperbilirubinemia has been linked to acute appendicitis, and its significance to the condition has been hypothesised in the medical literature. The hope that serum bilirubin would be useful as a new laboratory marker in the diagnosis of acute appendicitis prompted the current investigation. The purpose of this research was to investigate the association between hyperbilirubinemia and acute appendicitis, to test its validity as a diagnostic marker for this condition, and to determine whether or not elevated bilirubin levels are a reliable predictor of appendicular perforation.
Conclusion: Eighty patients hospitalised with a preoperative diagnosis of acute appendicitis who underwent emergency appendectomy between November 2019 and October 2021 will be included in a two-year prospective study conducted by the Department of General Surgery at NRI Medical College, Chinakakani. The total blood bilirubin levels of individuals with perforated and gangrenous appendicitis were substantially greater than those of those with acute appendicitis. When predicting gangrenous or perforated appendicitis, a high total serum bilirubin level has a high negative predictive value but low specificity. Total blood bilirubin is therefore a valuable indicator in patients suspected of perforated or gangrenous appendicitis, and should be used in conjunction with the clinical examination and other laboratory techniques to evaluate patients suspected of appendicitis.

Effect of Examination Stress and its Consequences in Dental Students

Bama Rajanayagam; Manikandan S; Selvaraj S; Bhuvaneswaran D

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 748-754

Objective: Medical education being very arduous and laborious, students faces enormous stress during the course of education. It gets even worse as the exams progresses, which causes various mental and physiological changes affecting student’s health and their academic performances. The aim of the study was to find out the stress level in students by evaluating the salivary cortisol levels before written and oral exam respectively and comparing it with the salivary cortisol level after the exams are completed.
Study design:
Methods: In this study, 100 healthy individuals of first year dental students aged between 17 to 19 years were included. Salivary samples from the students were collected before the written exam and oral exam respectively and were considered to be samples during the stressful period. Likewise samples were collected from the same students a week after the completion of university exams and were considered as samples during their relaxed period. Both the samples, during stressful period and relaxed period were taken for cortisol analysis.
Results:
The cortisol level was found to be significantly increased in stressful period which is before both oral and written exams (P≤0.05*) compared to relaxed period which is after 
the completion of all the exams. A marked increase in cortisol secretion was found before oral exams (216.41±17.31) in comparison to the cortisol secretion before written exams (119±5.48) which could signify the severity of stress posed by the students before oral exams.
Conclusion: Examination is important and should be faced with a challenging spirit. If not it would affect the students both physically and psychologically causing anxiety and stress and
thereby affecting their performance.