Online ISSN: 2515-8260

Keywords : Body mass index

Assessment of diabetes related distress among type 2 diabetic patients: A Prospective study

Manish ajmariya, Praveen tagore, Kamal Kachawa, Dimpal Dodiyar, Deepika Singh, Kapil Dev Arya

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 6, Pages 1122-1130

Introduction: Diabetes Mellitus (DM) is a complex, chronic illness requiring continuous medical care with multi factorial risk reduction strategies beyond glycemic control. Globally, the prevalence is expected to further increase to 9.9% that reflects a population of 628.6 million people by the year 2045. To assess the prevalence of diabetes related distress (DRD) among Type 2 diabetics.
Material and Method: This was a prospective, observational and descriptive study conducted in the Department of Medicine at Tertiary Care Teaching Hospital over a period of 1 year among T2DM patients who were seen and followed up. Patients who were at least 18 years old, and had all recent laboratory results were included in the study. Patients with T1DM, and those who had untreated hypothyroidism, gestational diabetes, cancer, mental retardation, and psychiatric illness, were excluded from the study.
Results: A total of 100 subjects were screened (69 males and 31 females). Their demographic and clinical data are presented. The subjects were aged 35–85 years with a mean ± SD of 50.5 ±8.0 years. The mean age for subjects with T1DM was 51.25±9.36 years and for those with T2DM 50.41±0.642 years. Average scores for T1DM were DDS-2, 3.9 ± 1.3 and DDS-17, 3.0 ± 1.0 and for T2DM, DDS-2, 2.4 ± 1.1 and DDS-17, 1.8 ± 0.8. Scores for the different parameters of distress were graded in terms of severity. DD (score ≥2 or moderate to severe distress) was present in 70.0% for DDS-2, 49.0% for DDS-17, 56.0% for EB, 13.0% for PRD, 51.0% for RRD, and 41.0% for ID.
Conclusion: Among type 2 diabetes patients, diabetic distress is a serious problem and needs to be addressed for better glycemic outcome. Among type 2 diabetes patients, diabetic distress is a serious problem which affects their living. It is necessary as clinicians to address diabetic distress in the patients for better glycemic outcome.


M. Priya Darshini, MadhaviLatha pinnelli, GullapalliHanumantha Rao, Kiran Madhala

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 5, Pages 453-460

The relationship between Post-Dural puncture headache (PDPH) and body mass index (BMI) in individuals who have just given birth has been the subject of contentious studies in the past. As a result, we decided to survey this complication in a group of patients who had cesarean sections performed under spinal anesthesia. It was predicted that people with greater BMIs would experience PDPH less frequently.The demographic data was retrieved and documented after looking over the patient files and phoning the patients. Additionally, a headache score based on a 0–10 verbal numeric rating scale (NRS) and the development of PDPH up to three days after a cesarean section in the present delivery were documented.At the Kakatiya Medical College in Warangal, 76 women who had undergone spinal anesthesia for a cesarean section participated in this study (March 2021 to February 2022). The subjects ranged in age from 20 to 40 years old (28.24 ± 3.27). The average BMI (kg/m2) before a cesarean section was 30.21 ± 2.82. 38 (50%) of the 76 parturient patients were not obese, and the remaining (50%) were (BMI > 30 kg/m2); 97.90% were non-smokers, and 92 percent had no prior history of PDPH during the previous neuro-axial anesthesia/analgesia. Only 13 participants (17.10 %) in this study experienced headaches following the current spinal anesthetic. 31 patients (81.57%) and 32 patients (84.21%) of the patients who did not develop PDPH had BMIs below 30 and over 30 respectively (P = 0.386). We concluded that increased BMI at the time of cesarean section decreased the incidence of PDPH. Increased BMI lowers the risk of PDPH because obese patients' increased intra-abdominal pressure reduces CSF leakage from the dural puncture point. Additionally, this study demonstrated that neither BMI nor weight gain during pregnancy, nor any other characteristics looked at, had a significant impact on the severity of PDPH.

Effect of Body Mass Index on Lipid Profile of Type 2 Diabetic Patients at an Urban Tertiary Hospital in Nigeria

K. Priyadarshini, Dr. Manila Jain

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 6, Pages 701-716

Introduction:Diabetes mellitus is an important global public health problem. In addition to being a chronic disease, obesity is a key risk factor for Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) that leads to disability. This study aimed at investigating the effect of Body Mass Index on serum lipid profile in type II diabetic patients.
Material and Methods
This is a prospective study and observational study will be done in the Department of Physiology in collaboration     with the Department of Medicine, Index Medical College, Hospital & Research Centre, Indore.Inclusion Criteria:Only Diagnosed cases of male and female Type II Diabetes Mellitus cases aged 30-60 suffering from more than 2yrs. The diagnosis of diabetes is made on the basis of (Revised American Diabetic Association criteria). Fasting glucose >126mg/dl and 2hr postprandial plasma glucose >200mg/dl.
Results: The mean (± SD) of various motor nerve variables like latency, amplitude and nerve conduction velocity between control and cases. When compared these variables between controls and cases was statistically highly significant (p<0.001). Comparison of various motor nerve variables like latency, amplitude and nerve conduction velocity between control and cases are graphically shown.
Conclusion: A significant negative correlation between BMI and HDL-C was observed, while the correlation between BMI and LDL-C was observed to be insignificant. HDL-C was found significantly higher in patients with normal BMI. These results are important to indicate that there is modest impact of BMI on lipid profile. Therefore, assessment and management for altered blood lipids should not be based on a patient’s body weight or BMI.


D.SoundaryaMahanthi, P. V. Rajini, N. Jyothi, T. Arunmanas, T. Krishnasri Vathsav, T. Anvesh Buddha

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 4, Pages 1222-1232

Background:Psoriasis is the most prevalent chronic inflammatory disease, with an approximate worldwide prevalence of 2-3% [1]. The etiological factor is yet to be known but the genetic factor, trauma, skin infections, drugs, emotional stress like anxiety, alcohol, smoking etc greatly impact the clinical evolution of Psoriasis [2]. Oxidative stress which is induced by the excessive production of reactive oxygen species and inflammatory cytokines that play a significant role in the evolution of severe psoriatic plaques. Serum Paraoxonase is synthesized by the liver and is related with HDL particles.
Materials and Methods: Sample Collection– After 12 hours of fasting, a morning sample of 5 ml of venous blood has been collected from the antecubital vein from each subject under aseptic conditions. Parameters Serum Paraoxonase using paranitrophenol substrate by spectrophotometric method. Serum Lipidprofile Serum totalcholesterol by CHOD-PAP Enzymatic photometric method. Serumtriglycerides by GPO-POD method. Serum Hdl- cholesterol by Direct Enzymatic Cholesterol- DL estimation in the presence of detergent. Serum LDL-Cholesterol estimated by Friedewald formula. Serum VLDL- Cholesterol is estimated automatically by dividing triglyceride by5.
Results: The [mean ± SD] age of the cases was 43.67±11.069 and in the controls 42.8±11.679 years. Statistical analysis showed that there was no statistical difference in age between the two groups (as the P-value is > 0.005). The [mean±SD] basal PON activity in cases was 69.08±13.03 and in controls was 74.46±9.79. There is statistical significance in the basal PON activity between the two groups. The mean serum total cholesterol is increased incases (p value is 0.630) when compared with controls, but it is not statistically significant. there is a high significance in the serum high densitylipo protein (HDL-C) between the two groups: 1. The mean increase in the levels of serum low densitylipo protein (LDL-C) cases are statistically significant when compared with controls. There was a high statistical significance in the serum triglycerides levels between the two groups.
Conclusion: This study was undertaken to study the levels of serum Paraoxonaseandserum lipid profile in 40 patients who are diagnosed with psoriasis to assess the irrole in causing cardiovascular diseases. 2. Inpsoriasis, the elevated levels of triglycerides, low densitylipo protein and very low-density lipoprotein are due to lowered levels of hepatic lipase at acute phase reaction, results in elevation of triglycerides in serum. Decreased levels of HDL-C levels are observed because the systemic Inflammation caused by cytokines. As PON is associated with HDL. The PON levels are affected by the decrease in HDL levels and results in lipidperoxidation along with formation of Oxidised LDL. This OX-LDL accumulates in the smooth muscle of artery and causes atherosclerosis.

Body mass index and abnormal uterine bleeding in premenopausal women: A correlation

Dr. Himabindu Sangabathula, Dr. Yashovardhini Siddareddy, Dr. Modugu Lavanya

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 4, Pages 3170-3182

(BMI) increases, a trend that has been observed in recent years as the rate of obesity among women rises. Despite abundant evidence showing a connection between endometrial cancer and obesity, very few people are aware of it. In order to assess the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and endometrial pathology in premenopausal women with AUB at Nalgonda medical college, an analytical case control research was conducted.
Methods: 100 women between the ages of 40 and 55 who presented to the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology at Nalgonda medical college between January 2020 and December 2021 were included in the study group for an analytical case control study. These women with BMIs of 18.5 to 24.99 and fewer than 25 had their menstrual patterns and endometrial patterns by histopathology examined.
Results: In the study group of women between the ages of 40 and 55, the average age was 44.83. In both groups, the average length of the symptoms was comparable. 8.52 months for the control group and 10.18 months for the patients group. There was no discernible variation between the two groups' menstrual patterns, which were equivalent. In comparison to the control group, the cases group had increased mean endometrial thickness, mean BMI, and hyperplasia with or without atypia. Although it was not statistically significant, atypical endometrial hyperplasia occurred more frequently in women with rising BMI.

Influence of Induced Stress on Autonomic Activity in North IndianYoung Adults: A Cross Sectional Study

Anjali Verma, Sanket Jheetey, Jay Ballabh Kumar, Ritu Adhana

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 3, Pages 10473-10479

Introduction: The autonomic nervous system is key to balance a human activity within
aphysiological condition. But exaggerated sympathetic response increases metabolic
function.Daily stress also plays an important role in activating sympathetic activity, but
chronic stressdysfunctions sympathetic activity and has diverse pathophysiological
Aim:Thisresearch was planned to see the impact of stressors on sympathetic activity
inIndian youngadults.
Methods and Methodology: This cross-sectional study was done in the Department
ofPhysiology, of TMMC and RC,Moradabad for a period of six months(July –
December2017) after the clearance from ethical & college research committee, Healthy
young adults(N = 140) aged 18–25 years were enrolled for this study after receiving
written consent. Eighty-six male subjects were in Group -1 having normal BMI (18.5-
24.9kg/m2) and fifty- fourmales were enrolled in Group-2 having BMI (>25kg/m2).
Their BMI was calculated bythequetelet index(kg/m2). after taking individuals height in
meters and weight in kilogram.Basal systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood
pressure were measured by aneroidsphygmomanometer and heart rate were calculated
from lead II of ECG. These parameterswere again observed after inducing stress by
Cold pressure test (CPT), bicycle ergometer, andVideo Game (VG).
Results: There was no significant difference obtained in cardiovascular activity (Heart
rate,Systolic & Diastolic blood pressure) at the baseline position (>0.05) but just after
inducingstress (CPT, ergometer, VG) the sympathetic activity was more noticed in
Group-2 withhighly significant difference(<0.01) Most significant difference was found
after the physicalstressor (ergometer) in heart rate, systolic and diastolic blood pressure
(<0.001). After theCPT significant difference was found in heart rate, systolic blood
pressure (<0.05) diastolicblood pressure (<0.001). Post mental stress (VG) there was
significant difference in heart rateand systolic blood pressure (<0.05) and diastolic
blood pressure (<0.001).
Conclusion: The sympathetic activity was maximum in Group-2 individuals with
highlysignificant difference (<0.01), so they are more prone to hypertension.As a result,
Group 2 isadvised to take precautionary measures by following healthy lifestyle

In India, alcohol consumption is correlated with impaired β-cell function independent of body mass index

Utkal Kishore Khadanga, Madhusmita Mishra

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 3, Pages 11167-11175

Type 2 diabetes is linked to alcohol consumption. The link between alcohol consumption
and β-cell function, on the other hand, is still unknown. The purpose of this study is to
look at the link between them. 675 Indian men between the ages of 20 and 75 were
enlisted. The participants were first categorised into four categories: never drinkers,
abstainers, light drinkers (0.1-19.9 g/day), moderate drinkers (20.0-39.9 g/day), and
heavy drinkers (≥40.0 g/day), and then into two subgroups based on their body mass
index (BMI) (BMI< 25kg/m2 and BMI ≥25kg/m2). Confounders such as age, smoking
status, BMI, waist circumference (WC), blood pressure, lipids, and blood uric acid were
used to adapt the analysis process.Alcohol intake was linked to lower homeostasis model
assessment of β-cell function (HOMA-β) scores when compared to never drinkers,
regardless of BMI. In the BMI<25kg/m2 group, the homeostasis model assessment of
insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) was strongly connected with alcohol consumption
history, and in the BMI≥25kg/m2 group, it was significantly correlated with alcohol
consumption. The findings imply that alcohol intake is linked to β-cell dysfunction in
Indian community-dwelling men, regardless of BMI

The Association of Body Mass Index with Dental Caries in Children: A Systematic Review

Harun Achmad; Eriska Riyanti; Risti Saptarini Primarti; Andi Virga Zulhiah Pratiwi

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 1631-1640

Background: In the last few decades, industrialization, urbanization, economic development and market globalization have had a significant impact on changes in lifestyle and diet. Thus, food choices and nutritional intake greatly affect oral health and body weight. This has a significant impact on health and nutrition, particularly through higher carbohydrate intake and lower physical activity, particularly among younger members of the population. High sugar intake, such as sugar-containing snacks and soft drinks, was reported it is more common in children/adolescents who are overweight and obesity than those of normal weight. Frequent sugar intake is also a risk factor for dental caries. Given this, there is strong evidence that supports the relationship between dental caries and dietary intake has been associated with the development of obesity at a young age. Thus, it is possible to conclude that there is a biological relationship between dental caries and body weight. Objective: To see the relationship between body mass index and dental caries in children. Methods: Scientific evidence and clinical cases were drawn from the literature to support this review and information on the relationship between body mass index and dental caries in children. Result/Discussion: There is some scientific evidence showing a specific relationship between body mass index and dental caries in children. Conclusion:Body mass index has a significantrelationshipwiththeincidenceof dental caries in children. However, thisconditiondoes not account for which category the incidence of dental cariesis greatest. This is associated with multifactorial interactions that mutually influence the occurrence of dental caries in children.

Obesity among dental students

Ajrish George; Dhanraj Ganapathy

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 562-569

Obesity is a chronic medical condition associated with various oral health problems. The worldwide prevalence of obesity is 27.8%. Since obesity has a high prevalence worldwide, it is considered and prioritized as a major issue with regard to the economics of developed nations. Obesity is a disease with multiple aetiological factors, with genetics and specific obesity-related genes playing key roles. Due to the recent trends associated with urbanization, including increased refined food product consumption, unhealthy dietary habits, and a lack of physical activity, obesity is spreading fast. Obesity has been identified as a risk factor for various systemic diseases, including hypertension, cardio- vascular disease, metabolic diseases, osteoarthritis, respiratory difficulties, and some oral diseases, such as periodontal disease.The aim of the study is to accesses the prevalence of obesity among dental students of a private dental college.The study involve acessesing the obesity of various dental students using BMI index. All the data collected was computed in excel formal and statistical analysis was done.The study was conducted to accesses a change in 6 months period. All the data was statistically significant. After statistical analysis it was found that there was significant change between the initial and the data collected six months after. Thus in the current study it was observed the mean variation of the weight, food pattern and the BMI of each students and was found to have significant higher variation.


B. Shalini; R. Elangovan

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 1103-1109
DOI: 10.31838/ejmcm.07.09.114

To determine the effectiveness of Body Mass Index (BMI) and Testosterone yoga therapy in adult women the random group experimental research was the main goal. Thirty adult women between the ages of 20 and 35 years were randomly chosen using the Chennai random sampling group method for the purpose of study and were split into two groups, I and II, of 15 subjects each. It was hypothesised that the physiological and hormonal variables chosen, such as the Body Mass Index (BMI) and testosterone, will vary substantially from the control group among adult people. Before the start of the training programme, a preliminary evaluation for two classes on Body Mass Index (BMI) and testosterone was carried out. Community I subjects earned 60 minutes of yoga practise, 6 days a week for a cumulative duration of eight weeks. Group II (Control Group) had an active resting place. After the experimental period, the two groups were retested on the same selected dependent variables again. The study of co-variance (ANCOVA) was used to determine the important discrepancies between the experimental group and the control group. The significance test was set at a degree of trust of 0.05. The research findings found that the Intervention Group showed substantial variations between adult women with PCOS compared to the Placebo Group attributable to yoga therapy on selected biochemical and hormonal factors such as Body Mass Index (BMI) and testosterone. The theory was agreed at a confidence level of 0.05. It is also concluded that yoga therapy is effective in preserving a stable body mass index (BMI) and testosterone amount for adult women with PCOS.

Effect Of Pre Pregnancy Body Mass Index Status In Pregnancy With Obesity Cases

Wardhana ManggalaPasca; Zulhijayanti Noor Assyifa; Cahyani, MeiliaDwi; Rahmatyah, Rizqy

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 3, Pages 2677-2686

Introduction: Increasing of obesity become endemic problem in childbearing age of women. Therefore, this morbidity frequently found in pregnancy with all of the obesity consequences. Some problems in developing country like Indonesia, especially in our tertiary hospital also experienced burden situation of obesity in pregnancy cases.
Aims:To describe obesity in pregnancy cases and analyze obesity status before pregnancy on obstetric outcome of this morbidity
Material and methods:Retrospective case control study using medical record on singleton pregnancy complicated with obesity in major East Java tertiary referral hospital in one year.
Results:of 1144 deliveries, we revealed 337 cases (29%) of obesity. 246 cases were included and analyzed in this study. Majority of cases were multiparity (72.8%), with age of 31.5±5.6 y.o, BMI of 35.6±4.9 kg/m2 with 19.5% had morbidly obese status.48% of cases had obesity status before pregnancy. Pre pregnancy obesity status not related to Cesarean Section delivery (P=0.07), the occurrence of preeclampsia (P=0.35), gestational diabetes (P=0.97) and fetal macrosomia (P=0.97). Pre pregnancy obesity status related to higher BMI status at delivery (P<0.001) and morbidly obesity condition (P<0.001; OR 5.96; CI 2.58-13.77)
Conclusion:Our study revealed high incidence of obesity during pregnancy. While obesity correlated well with obstetric morbidity, pre pregnancy body mass index status did not associated with obstetric complication in pregnant obesity cases. Higher BMI and morbidly obese pregnancy cases due to pre pregnancy obesity status may contribute to non-significant increase of cesarean section.

Analysis Of The Assessment Of The Attitude To The State Of Its Health Among The Inorgonized Population

Jo‘rayeva Hafiza Iskandarovna; Soliyev Alisher Urakovich; Djumayev Karomat Shoyimovich; Khusenov Olim Nutfilloyevich

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 3346-3352

Analysis of the assessment of attitudes towards their health among the unorganized population. With the important role of timely and adequate detection of various diseases and pathological conditions by doctors of the health facility, the adequacy of assessing patients health is of particular importance. An adequate assessment of the patient's own health is an important help in the timely referral to the doctor and the conduct of the preventive measures. In this regard, the frequency of the main components of the metabolic syndrome among people who differ in assessing their health was analyzed.
Among the unorganized population of Bukhara there is an inadequate assessment of the state of health among patients with arterial hypertension, with body mass index and obesity and a violation of carbohydrate metabolism.


Faisal Raad Mohcen Alsharif, Faisal Salman Rashid ALsaedi, Najwa Ali Hassan Huraysi, Alaa Hussain Alhazmy, Abdullah Saad Alghamdi, Naif Moed al Huzali Sameeha Ahmad Yamani, Ahmed Matooq Ahmed Khan, Jameela Jameel Abdulrhman Murshid, Hamza Osama Hamza Murad

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2019, Volume 6, Issue 1, Pages 363-374

Obesity is emerging as a serious problem throughout the world, not only among adults, but also health care worker and children, teenagers and young adults. Of the factors contributing to obesity, stress seems to be particularly important as stressful condition leads to irregularity in worker in work, lack of exercise and addiction also considered independent and factors leading to stress. Workers in the health care is stressful throughout the whole work time. The amount of material to be absorbed, social isolation, pressure of examination, discrepancies between expectation and reality all can be anticipated to bring psychological stress. Prevalence of Stress and its Association with Body Weight Among health care worker,
Prevalence of stress and its Association with Body Weight Among health care worker fears related to stress have affected a considerable number of health care worker, especially the nursing category,studies have shown that healthcare workers managing patients have been experiencing worse psychological issues such as stress than the public because they are more likely to get infected and transmit the infection to their relatives and friends.
Aim of the study: To assessment of the prevalence of stress and its association with Body Weight Among health care workerin Primary Health Care Centers in makkah 2019
Method:Cross-sectional analytical study has been conducted health care workers at Primary Health Care Centers in Makkah city, that included all health care worker during data collection period 2019 the perceived stress scale-10 questionnaire used to measure the stress score. Weight and height were collected based on self-reported value.  the total sample has been (400) nurses, physicians and other
Result:the majority of the respondents were married status were (75.0%) while other were (14.0%).  The association between the stress and stress score most of the participant moderate Stress were constitutes (47.75%) followed by low stress the were constitutes (44.75%) while a statistically significant (P-value =0.001) and Chi-square (120.665), the Range (5-45) (Mean ± SD (25.441±6.125).
 Conclusion:Stress is prevalent among health care worker at Primary Health Care Centers, Makkah we found a positive correlation between BMI and stress but no statistically significant association between gender and stress level. Preventive measures should be implanted to reduce the level of stress and interventional studies are needed among health care worker at Primary Health Care Centers.