Online ISSN: 2515-8260

Keywords : body mass index


Dr. Niladri Saha, Dr. Sudipta Basu, Dr. Biswan Ojha

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2023, Volume 10, Issue 4, Pages 1389-1398

Polycystic ovary syndrome is a heterogeneous, multifaceted endocrine disorder of ovarian dysfunction in women of reproductive age group1.Clinical manifestations of PCOS ranges from mild signs of hyperandrogenism in thin, normally menstruating women to the classic Stein-Leventhal syndrome.
Aims: To find out the correlations between ultrasonographic findings, clinical features and hormonal profile in patients of polycystic ovary syndrome.
Materials and Methods: The present study was a Cross-sectional study. This Study was conducted from January 2021 to February 2022 at Department of Radiodiagnosis, Nilratan Sircar Medical college & Hospital, Kolkata.
Result: FSH levels were low to normal in 85.3% of the patients with >=12 follicles, 86.8% of the patients with 2-9 mm follicular size, 87.3% of the patients with >=10cc ovarian volume and 94% of the patients with EMT>10mm. Mean FSH level is lower in patients with 2-9mm follicles compared to patients with >9mm follicular size.
Conclusion: Thus this study concludes that, ultrasonographic ovarian features like follicular number and ovarian volume show significant positive correlations with LH level as well as positive correlations with LH/FSH ratio.


Shilpi Gupta, Dr. Rashmi Bishnoi .

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2023, Volume 10, Issue 1, Pages 1694-1699

The most common and neglected public health problem was reported as obesity in both developed and developing countries. Globally, one in six adults is obese, and nearly 2.8 million individuals die each year due to being overweight or obese. The women's health was measured using the body mass index, and the food habits of the women individually were recorded by the investigator. This study was conducted in the urban area of Lucknow district on 400 women aged 20 - 50 years and was selected using a multistage stratified random sampling technique. The overweight or obesity was found to be 39.50% among the selected women in the present study. The overweight was found to be more among the vegetarian women, who taken 2-3 meals per day, skipped meals and breakfast and took food with watching TV, as compared to non-vegetarian women, taken 4-5 meals per day, not skip meals, others meals and not taken food with watching TV respectively. The insignificant associations between body mass index and food habit, skipped meals, breakfast, type of skipped meals and food taken with watching TV were observed, while a significant association between body mass index and meals taken per day was found in the present study.

Study on serum uric acid in patients with Metabolic Syndrome at a tertiary care hospital in Tamilnadu

Jercy Grace, Kalpana B, P Soundara Rajan

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2023, Volume 10, Issue 2, Pages 1782-1788

Metabolic Syndrome (MetS) is a set of interrelated clinical disorders, including dyslipidemia, central obesity, glucose intolerance, and high blood pressure. Hyperuricemia is known to cause various inflammatory diseases via uric acid deposition in the joints. Present study was aimed to study serum uric acid in patients with metabolic syndrome at a tertiary care hospital in rural Tamilnadu. Material and Methods: Present study was comparative, observational study, conducted in patients of age > 18 years, either gender, case of metabolic syndrome (cases) & healthy, age & gender matched subjects (controls). Results: In present study 400 cases & age, gender matched 400 controls were participated. We noticed that systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, fasting blood sugar & triglycerides were significantly higher among patients with metabolic syndrome as compared to controls & difference was statistically significant (p<0.001). While, high-density lipoprotein, total cholesterol & low-density lipoprotein (mg/dL) were comparable in both groups & difference was not significant statistically (p>0.05). In patients with metabolic syndrome higher levels of uric acid (6.78 ± 1.05) were noted as compared to controls (5.16 ± 0.95), difference was statistically significant (p<0.001).In patients of metabolic syndrome higher levels of uric acid were noted in patients with BMI > 30 kg/m2 (6.17 ± 1.02 vs 4.81 ± 0.92), Fasting Blood Sugar ≥100 (6.29 ± 1.09 vs 4.92 ± 0.99), blood Pressure ≥130/85 (6.27 ± 1.13 vs 5.29 ± 1.01) & triglycerides > 150 mg/dL (6.05 ± 0.99 vs 5.53 ± 1.21), difference was statistically significant (p<0.001). Conclusion: Elevated levels of uric acid were seen in patients with metabolic syndrome and also in components of metabolic syndrome such as body mass index, fasting blood sugar, blood pressure & triglycerides

Assessment Of Effect Of Body Mass Index On Fetal Outcome In Pregnancy

Chandersheikhar, Devinder Kumar .

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2023, Volume 10, Issue 2, Pages 1009-1013

Background: To assess effect of body mass index on fetal outcome in pregnancy.
Materials and Methods: One hundred ten first trimester women were selected. Parameters such as BMI, gestational age at delivery (in weeks), birth weight (in kg) APGAR Score, meconium- stained liquor, NICU admission etc. was recoded.
Results: There were 30 underweight, 40 normal and 40 overweight patients. The difference was non- significant (P> 0.05). The mean APGAR score 1t 1 minute in underweight patients was 6.8, in normal was 6.2 and in overweight patients was 6.4. At 5 minutes was 8.9 in underweight, 8.7 in normal and 8.4 in overweight patients. The difference was non- significant (P> 0.05). 11% underweight and 34% overweight required NICU admission. The difference was significant (P< 0.05). 12% underweight and 38% overweight had meconium- stained liquor. The difference was significant (P< 0.05). 76% underweight, 91% normal and 100% overweight had >36 weeks gestational age. 40% underweight, 50% normal and 45% overweight had 2.5- 3 kgs birth weight. Apgar score at 1 min was seen in 90%, 92% and 88%, NICU admission in 11%, 0% and 34% and meconium- stained liquor in 12%, 14% and 38% underweight, normal and overweight babies respectively. The difference was significant (P< 0.05).

Conclusion: Underweight and obese mothers had increased risk of adverse perinatal outcome


Jolly Jolly; Kamran Fazal; Amrendra Narayan Choudhary

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2023, Volume 10, Issue 1, Pages 4179-4186

Background and objective: Infertility is a global health issue, affecting approximately 8-10% couples worldwide. The 1981 census of India estimated infertility to be in the range of 4-6%. The biological and social factors including stress due to economic status, religious attitudes, age at marriage, higher literacy, contraceptive usage and nuclear families play a significant role in lowering fertility. In this background present study was undertaken to find out the prevalence and factors influencing primary and secondary infertility among couples in rural field practice area of Nathnagar.

Association Of BMI And Lipid Profile In Overweight Young Adults After 3 Months Of Yoga Practice

Jay Prakash Singh Rajput; Asha Gandhi; Sanjiv K Bansal; P.N Singh; Nimarpreet Kaur; Deepti Dwivedi

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 8, Pages 1426-1433

Background: Many studies have applied aspects of Yoga to different health conditions. Obesity is a major health problem and the 5th leading risk for death globally. Reasons for these health problems are improper lifestyle and stress, which cause hormonal and chemical imbalance and disturb the proper coordination of metabolic and biochemical functions. So, the aim and objective of the present study is to assess the beneficial effects of 3 months of yoga practice on BMI, and lipid profile as well as correlate BMI with lipid parameters in overweight medical students between the age group 18-24 years.
Material and Methods: This prospective follow-up study included 50 Medical students having overweight of either sex (male & female) as per the inclusion criteria. Their BMI, and Lipid Profile were estimated before the start of yoga, after 6 weeks and 12 weeks of yoga practice, and their mean values were compared from baseline by using student t-Test, and correlation was done by using Pearson correlation test.
Results: Statistically significant decreased mean values of BMI, TC, TG, LDL, and VLDL were recorded when compared from baseline. Pearson’s correlation coefficient analysis between the BMI, TC and TG at three levels of yoga practice was statistically significant.
Conclusion: Yoga therapy is useful to overcome the complications of obesity. It is one of the non-pharmacological and cost-effective therapies to maintain better health by regulating BMI and other biochemical functions of the body.

A Cross Sectional Study to Assess and Compare the Efficiency of Older Anthropometric Measurements with Newer Parameters in Predicting the Risk of Diabetes Mellitus among the Urban Population of Mandya City in Karnataka, India.

Dr Nimisha V, Dr Pushpa Sarkar, Dr Mythri S, Dr Raghunath H, Mrs Drisya Madayil

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 8, Pages 1808-1818

Obesity is a major risk factor for Diabetes Mellitus(DM). Older anthropometric measurements like Body Mass Index(BMI), Waist Circumference(WC), Waist Circumference Height ratio(WHt ratio) etc and newer ones like A Body Shape Index(ABSI) and Body Roundness Index(BRI) are used to detect obesity. This study was undertaken to determine the utility of newer and older anthropometric measurements in predicting the risk of DM among urban population of Mandya city.
Methods: Fasting Blood Sugar(FBS) and anthropometric measurements like BMI, WC, WHt ratio, BRI and ABSI were measured. Correlation analysis, Odds Ratio and ROC curves were analyzed to know the ability of each anthropometric measurement in predicting the risk of DM.
Results: Overall prevalence of DM in the study population was 23.4%. All anthropometric measurements except ABSI were significantly high in subjects with DM. According to OR value, WHt ratio(2.254) was the best predictor of DM, followed by BMI(Asia Pacific classification) with 2.16.Older anthropometric measurements such as BMI(r=0.252;p=0.000*), WC(r=0.230;p=0.000) showed a significantly positive correlation with FBS compared to BRI and ABSI. According to ROC curves, the highest AUC was found with older methods such as WC(0.617) and BMI(0.616) followed by WHt ratio(0.595) and newer methods such as BRI(0.595) and ABSI(0.542).
Conclusion: Older anthropometric measurements have better discriminatory powers and significant strength of association with DM compared to newer ones. Establishing newer reference ranges of FBS for Asian population and incorporation of Asia Pacific Guidelines of BMI classification at all levels of health care in India is needed for better risk stratification and the prevention of DM.

Assessment Of Adolescents' Eating Habits And Their Effects On BMI At Adarsh Junior College

Tushar Joshi; Dr. Nutan Potdar; Indrajeet B Jadhav

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 8, Pages 1681-1684

Background: The time of sprout growth known as adolescence is one in which the need for greater energy is present, and eating habits have a significant influence in the overall maintenance of one's health. In this study, we are going to investigate the relationship between eating habits and BMI. The goal of this study is to determine the extent to which adolescent eating habits influence body mass index. For the purpose of this study, an evaluative research approach was utilised. A research design consisting merely of a one-group posttest was used. The research was carried out at Adarsh Junior College in Malkapur, which is located in Karad. In order to pick 121 students from the 11th and 12th grades, a technique called non-probability purposive sampling was utilised. After laying out the goals of the research project and answering each participant's questions, we obtained their informed consent. The data were gathered through the use of a standardised questionnaire. After that, the data were tabulated, and computations were carried out making use of both descriptive and inferential statistics. The findings showed that the majority of teenagers, 56.19%, have healthy eating habits, with 34.71% having normal BMI, 18.18% falling into the underweight category and 3.3% falling into the overweight category. While 13.22% and 2.47% of the population, respectively, are either underweight or overweight, 43.81% of the population has poor eating habits or among those people, 28.09% have normal body mass index. According to the findings of the study, there is not a significant relationship between BMI and eating Habits. According to the findings, the effects of both groups on the BMI level of adolescents are practically identical.

Tibialis Posterior Muscle Endurance among Physiotherapist with Flatfoot - An Observational Study

Goutham V; Ramana K; Jagatheesan Alagesan; Prathap Suganthirababu; Aravind Ganesh; Rajesh G

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 8, Pages 425-432

Background: The flattening of the foot's medial arch is known as acquired flatfoot. It's one of the most common problems seen among adult health-care providers.
Objective: The purpose of this study is to determine the tibialis posterior muscle endurance among physiotherapist with flatfoot.
Methodology: The observational study included 60 physiotherapists who met the inclusion criteria. The single legged heel rise test and the foot posture index were used to evaluate each individual with flatfoot.
Result: Normal BMI participants had an average of 23.9333 repetitions in their dominant leg and 23 repetitions in their non dominant leg, overweight participants had an average of 15.2857 repetitions in their dominant leg and 14.1071 repetitions in their non dominant leg, and obese participants had an average of 7.11765 repetitions in their dominant leg and 6.17647 repetitions in their non dominant leg in a single legged heel rise test.
Conclusion: Participants with flatfoot and a BMI of Overweight, Obese had lower tibialis posterior muscle endurance than flatfoot people with a normal BMI, and the participants had higher tibialis posterior muscle endurance in their dominant leg than in their non dominant leg, according to the findings. 

Sympathetic Activity and Heart Rate Variability in Response to Cold Pressor Test and Hand Grip Test among Obese and Non-obese Adults: An Original Research Study

M.Shareefa, RVBS Sarma, Sunil Kumar.A.Rayan, Syeda Sobia Harmain

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 7, Pages 952-958

Background: Obesity is a health hazard throughout the world. weight gain and obesity are responsible for a growing threat to health throughout the world objectives: To evaluate and compare the cardiovascular autonomic response to cold pressor test and hand grip test among obese and non-obese adults.Methodology: Cardiovascular  sympathetic  function  tests were carried out in 100 obese adults  and  100 non obese adults  aged  between  28-58  years. Recording of ECG was performed in normal breathing, deep breathing and in condition of cold pressor.Time-domain method was used to record HRV Results: Study demonstrated significant decreased BP(BP)(systolic and diastolic) to cold pressor and to sustained handgrip. Responses in cases were significantly correlated to Body Mass Index. Our findings shows increased sympathetic activity was seen in obese patients and vagal activity was also withdrawn. Conclusion: There is remarkable change observed in the cardiac autonomic dysfunction responses between obese and non-obese subjects. Normal BMI showed a better HRV response to cold pressor test, indicating a better parasympathetic activity as compared to obese subjects. In cold pressor test BP was reduced in obese compared to non-obese individuals suggesting decreased vascular sensitivity to the amplified adrenergic activity in healthy obese individuals(adults).

Early pregnancy body mass index and gestational weight gain in relation to neonatal birth weight: An observational study

Dr Akshay Mohan Bodhe; Dr. Nitin Kshirsagar; Dr. Sanjaykumar Patil; Dr. Yamini Patil

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 7, Pages 5143-5152

Background: The pattern of gestational weight gain (GWG) and pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) are indicative of maternal and fetal nutrition during pregnancy and contribute to their later health. However, there is a paucity of studies related to this association from developing countries like India.
Objective: To study early pregnancy body mass index and gestational weight gain in relation to neonatal birth weight.
Methodology: This observational study was conducted on 1031pregnant women, aged 18-35 years, from June 2014-December 2015. Data was collected by a pre-designed questionnaire. Pre-pregnancy BMI and GWG gain at antenatal visits were noted. National health mission (NHM, 2014) guidelines were used to assess weight gain. Neonatal birth weight and gestational age at birth were noted post-delivery. Statistical analysis was performed using R software (Version 3.6.0).
Results: Majority of the women were 21-25 years old (57.81%), nullipara, normal BMI (72.16%) with poor education level (61.69%) and good socio-economic status (31.91%). Neonatal birth weight was within normal range (2.5-2.99 Kg) (41.22%) with maternal GWG within NHM recommendation (71%). A significant association was observed between neonatal birth weight and maternal BMI (P>0.001). A significant difference was observed in weight gain in 1st and 2nd trimester between underweight and normal weight subjects (P <0.05). Distribution of neonatal birth weight born to women with 1-4 Kg weight gain during 1st trimester (P<0.05) and with 3-7 Kg during 2nd and 3rd trimester (P<0.001) was significantly different. A significant positive correlation existed between maternal BMI and neonatal birth weight (P<0.001); total GWG and birth weight of neonates for most demographic characters (P <0.05).
Conclusion: Maternal early pregnancy BMI and GWG are positively associated with neonatal birth weight with GWG causing an increase in birth weight.

Study of association of BMI with glycemic control in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients at a tertiary hospital, West Bengal

Jayati Das, Rupali Thakur

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 7, Pages 7864-7869

Background: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a heterogenous group of metabolic disorders with chronic hyperglycemia and glucose intolerance. Satisfactory glycemic and weight control in outpatient diabetic subjects is important. Present study was aimed to study association of BMI with glycemic control in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients at a tertiary hospital.
Material and Methods: Present study was hospital based, cross-sectional study, conducted in subjects (males and females between 26–45 years) attending outpatient department of Medicine, known diabetic patients, underwent BMI calculation and HBa1c estimation.
Results: In present study, total 150 subjects studied, 50 each from group A, B, C (depending on duration of diabetes), in each group 25 male & 25 female. Subjects were divided according to BMI values & compared with gender. There was no significant difference found in male & females according BMI distribution (p – 0.72). According to BMI majority were overweight (72 cases) followed by normal BMI (54 cases) & obese (24 cases). We noticed, HBA1C ≥ 8 commonly in overweight & obese subjects than normal BMI subjects, difference was statistically significant (p<0.01). Descriptive statistics calculated using Pearsons correlation. R values were 0.034, 0.242 & -0.022 for A,B,C groups respectively, which was significant in obese group. When we compared BMI and glycated Hb values within the three groups, a significant correlation was noted between BMI and glycated Hb values.
Conclusion: As BMI value rises, so does the HbA1c level. Majority of diabetic subjects with a BMI > 30 (obese group) had HbA1c levels greater than 8%. Statistical analysis reveals a substantial positive connection between BMI and HbA1c (p value 0.001).

Prevalence Of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus And Associated Risk Factors Among Antenatal Mother Attending At A Tertiary Care Hospital Bhubaneswar, Odisha

Bishnupriya Lenka, Kalyani Rath, Niharibala Nayak, Anusuya Behera, Reena Singh

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 7, Pages 9291-9298

Introduction: Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is the most common medical complication and metabolic disorder of pregnancy. The aim and objective of this study were to determine the prevalence of GDM and its relationship with various risk factors.
Material & Method - Cross-sectional Descriptive study was conducted in a selected tertiary care Hospital, Bhubaneswar,Odisha, India. The tool used was a self-structured questionnaire. The study was done on 289 antenatal mothers of any gestation age, attending an antenatal outpatient department in a tertiary care hospital of KIMS, PBMH, Hospital Bhubaneswar.  These antenatal mothers were given 75gm oral glucose irrespective of the last meal and their plasma glucose was estimated at 2 hours. Antenatal mothers with plasma glucose values ≥140 mg/dl were labeled as GDM. Antenatal mothers who were diabetic before pregnancy or who had chronic diseases like tuberculosis, malignancy, renal failure, cardiac disorder, and mothers with twin pregnancies were not included in the study. The sampling technique used was the consecutive sampling technique among all study samples it was assessed by using chi-square, P value statistical analysis, and analysis was done by the use of SPSS software version 20 and Microsoft Excel, 2007.
Results: The study shows that the prevalence of GDM was 29.7% and the risk factors are 90.70% of antenatal mothers were taking 4-5 times meals per day during pregnancy,98. 84 % of mothers were under BMI 25 to 29.9, 52.33% of mothers were moderate workers, Diabetes Mellitus was present34.88%  in family history, Amniotic fluid 1000-1500 ml was present in 56.98% of mothers,84.88%  non-veg diet.
Conclusion: In this study, the GDM prevalence rate was 29.7%. It is a medical associated disorder during pregnancy. GDM has detrimental effects on the mother as well as the fetus. Hence screening and early detection are highly recommended, and close monitoring of blood glucose levels has shown to significantly reduce fetomaternal morbidity and mortality rate

Assessment of diabetes related distress among type 2 diabetic patients: A Prospective study

Manish ajmariya, Praveen tagore, Kamal Kachawa, Dimpal Dodiyar, Deepika Singh, Kapil Dev Arya

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 6, Pages 1122-1130

Introduction: Diabetes Mellitus (DM) is a complex, chronic illness requiring continuous medical care with multi factorial risk reduction strategies beyond glycemic control. Globally, the prevalence is expected to further increase to 9.9% that reflects a population of 628.6 million people by the year 2045. To assess the prevalence of diabetes related distress (DRD) among Type 2 diabetics.
Material and Method: This was a prospective, observational and descriptive study conducted in the Department of Medicine at Tertiary Care Teaching Hospital over a period of 1 year among T2DM patients who were seen and followed up. Patients who were at least 18 years old, and had all recent laboratory results were included in the study. Patients with T1DM, and those who had untreated hypothyroidism, gestational diabetes, cancer, mental retardation, and psychiatric illness, were excluded from the study.
Results: A total of 100 subjects were screened (69 males and 31 females). Their demographic and clinical data are presented. The subjects were aged 35–85 years with a mean ± SD of 50.5 ±8.0 years. The mean age for subjects with T1DM was 51.25±9.36 years and for those with T2DM 50.41±0.642 years. Average scores for T1DM were DDS-2, 3.9 ± 1.3 and DDS-17, 3.0 ± 1.0 and for T2DM, DDS-2, 2.4 ± 1.1 and DDS-17, 1.8 ± 0.8. Scores for the different parameters of distress were graded in terms of severity. DD (score ≥2 or moderate to severe distress) was present in 70.0% for DDS-2, 49.0% for DDS-17, 56.0% for EB, 13.0% for PRD, 51.0% for RRD, and 41.0% for ID.
Conclusion: Among type 2 diabetes patients, diabetic distress is a serious problem and needs to be addressed for better glycemic outcome. Among type 2 diabetes patients, diabetic distress is a serious problem which affects their living. It is necessary as clinicians to address diabetic distress in the patients for better glycemic outcome.

Effect of Body Mass Index on Lipid Profile of Type 2 Diabetic Patients at an Urban Tertiary Hospital in Nigeria

K. Priyadarshini, Dr. Manila Jain

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 6, Pages 701-716

Introduction:Diabetes mellitus is an important global public health problem. In addition to being a chronic disease, obesity is a key risk factor for Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) that leads to disability. This study aimed at investigating the effect of Body Mass Index on serum lipid profile in type II diabetic patients.
Material and Methods
This is a prospective study and observational study will be done in the Department of Physiology in collaboration     with the Department of Medicine, Index Medical College, Hospital & Research Centre, Indore.Inclusion Criteria:Only Diagnosed cases of male and female Type II Diabetes Mellitus cases aged 30-60 suffering from more than 2yrs. The diagnosis of diabetes is made on the basis of (Revised American Diabetic Association criteria). Fasting glucose >126mg/dl and 2hr postprandial plasma glucose >200mg/dl.
Results: The mean (± SD) of various motor nerve variables like latency, amplitude and nerve conduction velocity between control and cases. When compared these variables between controls and cases was statistically highly significant (p<0.001). Comparison of various motor nerve variables like latency, amplitude and nerve conduction velocity between control and cases are graphically shown.
Conclusion: A significant negative correlation between BMI and HDL-C was observed, while the correlation between BMI and LDL-C was observed to be insignificant. HDL-C was found significantly higher in patients with normal BMI. These results are important to indicate that there is modest impact of BMI on lipid profile. Therefore, assessment and management for altered blood lipids should not be based on a patient’s body weight or BMI.


M. Priya Darshini, MadhaviLatha pinnelli, GullapalliHanumantha Rao, Kiran Madhala

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 5, Pages 453-460

The relationship between Post-Dural puncture headache (PDPH) and body mass index (BMI) in individuals who have just given birth has been the subject of contentious studies in the past. As a result, we decided to survey this complication in a group of patients who had cesarean sections performed under spinal anesthesia. It was predicted that people with greater BMIs would experience PDPH less frequently.The demographic data was retrieved and documented after looking over the patient files and phoning the patients. Additionally, a headache score based on a 0–10 verbal numeric rating scale (NRS) and the development of PDPH up to three days after a cesarean section in the present delivery were documented.At the Kakatiya Medical College in Warangal, 76 women who had undergone spinal anesthesia for a cesarean section participated in this study (March 2021 to February 2022). The subjects ranged in age from 20 to 40 years old (28.24 ± 3.27). The average BMI (kg/m2) before a cesarean section was 30.21 ± 2.82. 38 (50%) of the 76 parturient patients were not obese, and the remaining (50%) were (BMI > 30 kg/m2); 97.90% were non-smokers, and 92 percent had no prior history of PDPH during the previous neuro-axial anesthesia/analgesia. Only 13 participants (17.10 %) in this study experienced headaches following the current spinal anesthetic. 31 patients (81.57%) and 32 patients (84.21%) of the patients who did not develop PDPH had BMIs below 30 and over 30 respectively (P = 0.386). We concluded that increased BMI at the time of cesarean section decreased the incidence of PDPH. Increased BMI lowers the risk of PDPH because obese patients' increased intra-abdominal pressure reduces CSF leakage from the dural puncture point. Additionally, this study demonstrated that neither BMI nor weight gain during pregnancy, nor any other characteristics looked at, had a significant impact on the severity of PDPH.


D.SoundaryaMahanthi, P. V. Rajini, N. Jyothi, T. Arunmanas, T. Krishnasri Vathsav, T. Anvesh Buddha

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 4, Pages 1222-1232

Background:Psoriasis is the most prevalent chronic inflammatory disease, with an approximate worldwide prevalence of 2-3% [1]. The etiological factor is yet to be known but the genetic factor, trauma, skin infections, drugs, emotional stress like anxiety, alcohol, smoking etc greatly impact the clinical evolution of Psoriasis [2]. Oxidative stress which is induced by the excessive production of reactive oxygen species and inflammatory cytokines that play a significant role in the evolution of severe psoriatic plaques. Serum Paraoxonase is synthesized by the liver and is related with HDL particles.
Materials and Methods: Sample Collection– After 12 hours of fasting, a morning sample of 5 ml of venous blood has been collected from the antecubital vein from each subject under aseptic conditions. Parameters Serum Paraoxonase using paranitrophenol substrate by spectrophotometric method. Serum Lipidprofile Serum totalcholesterol by CHOD-PAP Enzymatic photometric method. Serumtriglycerides by GPO-POD method. Serum Hdl- cholesterol by Direct Enzymatic Cholesterol- DL estimation in the presence of detergent. Serum LDL-Cholesterol estimated by Friedewald formula. Serum VLDL- Cholesterol is estimated automatically by dividing triglyceride by5.
Results: The [mean ± SD] age of the cases was 43.67±11.069 and in the controls 42.8±11.679 years. Statistical analysis showed that there was no statistical difference in age between the two groups (as the P-value is > 0.005). The [mean±SD] basal PON activity in cases was 69.08±13.03 and in controls was 74.46±9.79. There is statistical significance in the basal PON activity between the two groups. The mean serum total cholesterol is increased incases (p value is 0.630) when compared with controls, but it is not statistically significant. there is a high significance in the serum high densitylipo protein (HDL-C) between the two groups: 1. The mean increase in the levels of serum low densitylipo protein (LDL-C) cases are statistically significant when compared with controls. There was a high statistical significance in the serum triglycerides levels between the two groups.
Conclusion: This study was undertaken to study the levels of serum Paraoxonaseandserum lipid profile in 40 patients who are diagnosed with psoriasis to assess the irrole in causing cardiovascular diseases. 2. Inpsoriasis, the elevated levels of triglycerides, low densitylipo protein and very low-density lipoprotein are due to lowered levels of hepatic lipase at acute phase reaction, results in elevation of triglycerides in serum. Decreased levels of HDL-C levels are observed because the systemic Inflammation caused by cytokines. As PON is associated with HDL. The PON levels are affected by the decrease in HDL levels and results in lipidperoxidation along with formation of Oxidised LDL. This OX-LDL accumulates in the smooth muscle of artery and causes atherosclerosis.

Body mass index and abnormal uterine bleeding in premenopausal women: A correlation

Dr. Himabindu Sangabathula, Dr. Yashovardhini Siddareddy, Dr. Modugu Lavanya

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 4, Pages 3170-3182

(BMI) increases, a trend that has been observed in recent years as the rate of obesity among women rises. Despite abundant evidence showing a connection between endometrial cancer and obesity, very few people are aware of it. In order to assess the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and endometrial pathology in premenopausal women with AUB at Nalgonda medical college, an analytical case control research was conducted.
Methods: 100 women between the ages of 40 and 55 who presented to the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology at Nalgonda medical college between January 2020 and December 2021 were included in the study group for an analytical case control study. These women with BMIs of 18.5 to 24.99 and fewer than 25 had their menstrual patterns and endometrial patterns by histopathology examined.
Results: In the study group of women between the ages of 40 and 55, the average age was 44.83. In both groups, the average length of the symptoms was comparable. 8.52 months for the control group and 10.18 months for the patients group. There was no discernible variation between the two groups' menstrual patterns, which were equivalent. In comparison to the control group, the cases group had increased mean endometrial thickness, mean BMI, and hyperplasia with or without atypia. Although it was not statistically significant, atypical endometrial hyperplasia occurred more frequently in women with rising BMI.

In India, alcohol consumption is correlated with impaired β-cell function independent of body mass index

Utkal Kishore Khadanga, Madhusmita Mishra

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 3, Pages 11167-11175

Type 2 diabetes is linked to alcohol consumption. The link between alcohol consumption
and β-cell function, on the other hand, is still unknown. The purpose of this study is to
look at the link between them. 675 Indian men between the ages of 20 and 75 were
enlisted. The participants were first categorised into four categories: never drinkers,
abstainers, light drinkers (0.1-19.9 g/day), moderate drinkers (20.0-39.9 g/day), and
heavy drinkers (≥40.0 g/day), and then into two subgroups based on their body mass
index (BMI) (BMI< 25kg/m2 and BMI ≥25kg/m2). Confounders such as age, smoking
status, BMI, waist circumference (WC), blood pressure, lipids, and blood uric acid were
used to adapt the analysis process.Alcohol intake was linked to lower homeostasis model
assessment of β-cell function (HOMA-β) scores when compared to never drinkers,
regardless of BMI. In the BMI<25kg/m2 group, the homeostasis model assessment of
insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) was strongly connected with alcohol consumption
history, and in the BMI≥25kg/m2 group, it was significantly correlated with alcohol
consumption. The findings imply that alcohol intake is linked to β-cell dysfunction in
Indian community-dwelling men, regardless of BMI

Influence of Induced Stress on Autonomic Activity in North IndianYoung Adults: A Cross Sectional Study

Anjali Verma, Sanket Jheetey, Jay Ballabh Kumar, Ritu Adhana

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 3, Pages 10473-10479

Introduction: The autonomic nervous system is key to balance a human activity within
aphysiological condition. But exaggerated sympathetic response increases metabolic
function.Daily stress also plays an important role in activating sympathetic activity, but
chronic stressdysfunctions sympathetic activity and has diverse pathophysiological
Aim:Thisresearch was planned to see the impact of stressors on sympathetic activity
inIndian youngadults.
Methods and Methodology: This cross-sectional study was done in the Department
ofPhysiology, of TMMC and RC,Moradabad for a period of six months(July –
December2017) after the clearance from ethical & college research committee, Healthy
young adults(N = 140) aged 18–25 years were enrolled for this study after receiving
written consent. Eighty-six male subjects were in Group -1 having normal BMI (18.5-
24.9kg/m2) and fifty- fourmales were enrolled in Group-2 having BMI (>25kg/m2).
Their BMI was calculated bythequetelet index(kg/m2). after taking individuals height in
meters and weight in kilogram.Basal systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood
pressure were measured by aneroidsphygmomanometer and heart rate were calculated
from lead II of ECG. These parameterswere again observed after inducing stress by
Cold pressure test (CPT), bicycle ergometer, andVideo Game (VG).
Results: There was no significant difference obtained in cardiovascular activity (Heart
rate,Systolic & Diastolic blood pressure) at the baseline position (>0.05) but just after
inducingstress (CPT, ergometer, VG) the sympathetic activity was more noticed in
Group-2 withhighly significant difference(<0.01) Most significant difference was found
after the physicalstressor (ergometer) in heart rate, systolic and diastolic blood pressure
(<0.001). After theCPT significant difference was found in heart rate, systolic blood
pressure (<0.05) diastolicblood pressure (<0.001). Post mental stress (VG) there was
significant difference in heart rateand systolic blood pressure (<0.05) and diastolic
blood pressure (<0.001).
Conclusion: The sympathetic activity was maximum in Group-2 individuals with
highlysignificant difference (<0.01), so they are more prone to hypertension.As a result,
Group 2 isadvised to take precautionary measures by following healthy lifestyle

The Association of Body Mass Index with Dental Caries in Children: A Systematic Review

Harun Achmad; Eriska Riyanti; Risti Saptarini Primarti; Andi Virga Zulhiah Pratiwi

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 1631-1640

Background: In the last few decades, industrialization, urbanization, economic development and market globalization have had a significant impact on changes in lifestyle and diet. Thus, food choices and nutritional intake greatly affect oral health and body weight. This has a significant impact on health and nutrition, particularly through higher carbohydrate intake and lower physical activity, particularly among younger members of the population. High sugar intake, such as sugar-containing snacks and soft drinks, was reported it is more common in children/adolescents who are overweight and obesity than those of normal weight. Frequent sugar intake is also a risk factor for dental caries. Given this, there is strong evidence that supports the relationship between dental caries and dietary intake has been associated with the development of obesity at a young age. Thus, it is possible to conclude that there is a biological relationship between dental caries and body weight. Objective: To see the relationship between body mass index and dental caries in children. Methods: Scientific evidence and clinical cases were drawn from the literature to support this review and information on the relationship between body mass index and dental caries in children. Result/Discussion: There is some scientific evidence showing a specific relationship between body mass index and dental caries in children. Conclusion:Body mass index has a significantrelationshipwiththeincidenceof dental caries in children. However, thisconditiondoes not account for which category the incidence of dental cariesis greatest. This is associated with multifactorial interactions that mutually influence the occurrence of dental caries in children.

Obesity among dental students

Ajrish George; Dhanraj Ganapathy

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 562-569

Obesity is a chronic medical condition associated with various oral health problems. The worldwide prevalence of obesity is 27.8%. Since obesity has a high prevalence worldwide, it is considered and prioritized as a major issue with regard to the economics of developed nations. Obesity is a disease with multiple aetiological factors, with genetics and specific obesity-related genes playing key roles. Due to the recent trends associated with urbanization, including increased refined food product consumption, unhealthy dietary habits, and a lack of physical activity, obesity is spreading fast. Obesity has been identified as a risk factor for various systemic diseases, including hypertension, cardio- vascular disease, metabolic diseases, osteoarthritis, respiratory difficulties, and some oral diseases, such as periodontal disease.The aim of the study is to accesses the prevalence of obesity among dental students of a private dental college.The study involve acessesing the obesity of various dental students using BMI index. All the data collected was computed in excel formal and statistical analysis was done.The study was conducted to accesses a change in 6 months period. All the data was statistically significant. After statistical analysis it was found that there was significant change between the initial and the data collected six months after. Thus in the current study it was observed the mean variation of the weight, food pattern and the BMI of each students and was found to have significant higher variation.


B. Shalini; R. Elangovan

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 1103-1109
DOI: 10.31838/ejmcm.07.09.114

To determine the effectiveness of Body Mass Index (BMI) and Testosterone yoga therapy in adult women the random group experimental research was the main goal. Thirty adult women between the ages of 20 and 35 years were randomly chosen using the Chennai random sampling group method for the purpose of study and were split into two groups, I and II, of 15 subjects each. It was hypothesised that the physiological and hormonal variables chosen, such as the Body Mass Index (BMI) and testosterone, will vary substantially from the control group among adult people. Before the start of the training programme, a preliminary evaluation for two classes on Body Mass Index (BMI) and testosterone was carried out. Community I subjects earned 60 minutes of yoga practise, 6 days a week for a cumulative duration of eight weeks. Group II (Control Group) had an active resting place. After the experimental period, the two groups were retested on the same selected dependent variables again. The study of co-variance (ANCOVA) was used to determine the important discrepancies between the experimental group and the control group. The significance test was set at a degree of trust of 0.05. The research findings found that the Intervention Group showed substantial variations between adult women with PCOS compared to the Placebo Group attributable to yoga therapy on selected biochemical and hormonal factors such as Body Mass Index (BMI) and testosterone. The theory was agreed at a confidence level of 0.05. It is also concluded that yoga therapy is effective in preserving a stable body mass index (BMI) and testosterone amount for adult women with PCOS.

Effect Of Pre Pregnancy Body Mass Index Status In Pregnancy With Obesity Cases

Wardhana ManggalaPasca; Zulhijayanti Noor Assyifa; Cahyani, MeiliaDwi; Rahmatyah, Rizqy

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 3, Pages 2677-2686

Introduction: Increasing of obesity become endemic problem in childbearing age of women. Therefore, this morbidity frequently found in pregnancy with all of the obesity consequences. Some problems in developing country like Indonesia, especially in our tertiary hospital also experienced burden situation of obesity in pregnancy cases.
Aims:To describe obesity in pregnancy cases and analyze obesity status before pregnancy on obstetric outcome of this morbidity
Material and methods:Retrospective case control study using medical record on singleton pregnancy complicated with obesity in major East Java tertiary referral hospital in one year.
Results:of 1144 deliveries, we revealed 337 cases (29%) of obesity. 246 cases were included and analyzed in this study. Majority of cases were multiparity (72.8%), with age of 31.5±5.6 y.o, BMI of 35.6±4.9 kg/m2 with 19.5% had morbidly obese status.48% of cases had obesity status before pregnancy. Pre pregnancy obesity status not related to Cesarean Section delivery (P=0.07), the occurrence of preeclampsia (P=0.35), gestational diabetes (P=0.97) and fetal macrosomia (P=0.97). Pre pregnancy obesity status related to higher BMI status at delivery (P<0.001) and morbidly obesity condition (P<0.001; OR 5.96; CI 2.58-13.77)
Conclusion:Our study revealed high incidence of obesity during pregnancy. While obesity correlated well with obstetric morbidity, pre pregnancy body mass index status did not associated with obstetric complication in pregnant obesity cases. Higher BMI and morbidly obese pregnancy cases due to pre pregnancy obesity status may contribute to non-significant increase of cesarean section.

Analysis Of The Assessment Of The Attitude To The State Of Its Health Among The Inorgonized Population

Jo‘rayeva Hafiza Iskandarovna; Soliyev Alisher Urakovich; Djumayev Karomat Shoyimovich; Khusenov Olim Nutfilloyevich

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 3346-3352

Analysis of the assessment of attitudes towards their health among the unorganized population. With the important role of timely and adequate detection of various diseases and pathological conditions by doctors of the health facility, the adequacy of assessing patients health is of particular importance. An adequate assessment of the patient's own health is an important help in the timely referral to the doctor and the conduct of the preventive measures. In this regard, the frequency of the main components of the metabolic syndrome among people who differ in assessing their health was analyzed.
Among the unorganized population of Bukhara there is an inadequate assessment of the state of health among patients with arterial hypertension, with body mass index and obesity and a violation of carbohydrate metabolism.


Faisal Raad Mohcen Alsharif, Faisal Salman Rashid ALsaedi, Najwa Ali Hassan Huraysi, Alaa Hussain Alhazmy, Abdullah Saad Alghamdi, Naif Moed al Huzali Sameeha Ahmad Yamani, Ahmed Matooq Ahmed Khan, Jameela Jameel Abdulrhman Murshid, Hamza Osama Hamza Murad

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2019, Volume 6, Issue 1, Pages 363-374

Obesity is emerging as a serious problem throughout the world, not only among adults, but also health care worker and children, teenagers and young adults. Of the factors contributing to obesity, stress seems to be particularly important as stressful condition leads to irregularity in worker in work, lack of exercise and addiction also considered independent and factors leading to stress. Workers in the health care is stressful throughout the whole work time. The amount of material to be absorbed, social isolation, pressure of examination, discrepancies between expectation and reality all can be anticipated to bring psychological stress. Prevalence of Stress and its Association with Body Weight Among health care worker,
Prevalence of stress and its Association with Body Weight Among health care worker fears related to stress have affected a considerable number of health care worker, especially the nursing category,studies have shown that healthcare workers managing patients have been experiencing worse psychological issues such as stress than the public because they are more likely to get infected and transmit the infection to their relatives and friends.
Aim of the study: To assessment of the prevalence of stress and its association with Body Weight Among health care workerin Primary Health Care Centers in makkah 2019
Method:Cross-sectional analytical study has been conducted health care workers at Primary Health Care Centers in Makkah city, that included all health care worker during data collection period 2019 the perceived stress scale-10 questionnaire used to measure the stress score. Weight and height were collected based on self-reported value.  the total sample has been (400) nurses, physicians and other
Result:the majority of the respondents were married status were (75.0%) while other were (14.0%).  The association between the stress and stress score most of the participant moderate Stress were constitutes (47.75%) followed by low stress the were constitutes (44.75%) while a statistically significant (P-value =0.001) and Chi-square (120.665), the Range (5-45) (Mean ± SD (25.441±6.125).
 Conclusion:Stress is prevalent among health care worker at Primary Health Care Centers, Makkah we found a positive correlation between BMI and stress but no statistically significant association between gender and stress level. Preventive measures should be implanted to reduce the level of stress and interventional studies are needed among health care worker at Primary Health Care Centers.