Online ISSN: 2515-8260

Keywords : Saudi Arabia


Cross-sectional study to determine the prevalence of telogen effluvium among patients experiencing COVID-19 infection or vaccination in Saudi Arabia and Arabic countries

Waleed Alsalhi, MD , Yazeed Almulhim, MBBS, Naiem T. Issa, MD, PhD

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 7, Pages 4663-4674

Background: Telogen effluvium (TE) after COVID-19 infection or vaccination is a common sequelae in dermatology clinics.
Objective: to study the prevalence of telogen effluvium in COVID-19 patients and its association with COVID vaccine.
Methods: Cross-sectional study via online questionnaire in Saudi Arabia and other Arabic countries.
Results: Prevalence of hair loss among COVID-19 patients is ~85% with 45.9%  meeting the criteria of TE. Majority of those with high fever associated with COVID-19 developed TE (87.5%). 100% of hospitalized patients exhibited TE with 58% having diffuse hair loss for less than 6 months (acute TE) and 32% for more than 6 months (chronic TE). 63.2% of our participants had hair loss after COVID vaccination regardless of vaccine type with the majority experiencing it after the first dose (55.8%).
Limitations: The majority of the participants were female. Other factors associated with hair loss were taken into consideration.
Conclusions: COVID-19 infection and its vaccines carry a high risk for development of telogen effluvium.

Patient experience with Telemedicine in Primary Health Care in Al-Ahsa, Saudi Arabia.

Suha Jaafar Albahrani , Jamela Turkistani , Aisha Abdulaziz Bubshait , Fatimah Mohammed Almoaibed , Ehab Darwiesh, Sayed Ibrahim Ali

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 7, Pages 8130-8140

Background: Telemedicine and virtual care have rapidly increased during the COVID-19 pandemic. Since then, the ministry of health in Saudi Arabia has adopted telemedicine to increase access to healthcare services and overcome geographical barriers. Our study aimed to measure patient satisfaction with virtual primary health care in the governmental primary health care centers in Al-Ahsa, and study possible predictors for better patient satisfaction. Methods: A cross-sectional study was done among patients who had visited virtual clinics in Al-Ahsa, Saudi Arabia primary healthcare centers. Everyone who had at least one virtual visit between JAN 2020 and MARCH 2022 received an open-source questionnaire. Demographic information, level of satisfaction, and inquiries about their virtual clinic experience were all collected. The Mann-Whitney U test and the Kruskal-Wallis test were used to compare computed frequencies and percentages for categorical variables between groups. Results: The questionnaire was completed by 391 patients, 53.5% of whom were female. The most frequently used virtual clinics were family medicine clinics. The inability to meet the healthcare professional face-to-face was cited by 54% of participants as the most significant disadvantage of virtual care. Patients' overall satisfaction with virtual clinics was 68.1%. Patient satisfaction was significantly correlated with age group, level of education, and being well-informed about the use of telemedicine. Conclusion: According to this study, virtual clinics gained a high level of satisfaction in Saudi Arabia. Our research found that satisfaction was related to age, education, and the type of clinic used. Future studies are recommended to be done in different areas of Saudi Arabia.

RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN SMARTPHONE ADDICTION/OVERUSE AND MUSCULOSKELETAL PAIN IN SAUDI ARABIA

Abdulmalik B Albaker, Daifallah M Alharbi, Saud M Alzahrani, Farah Alnasser, Abdullah F Al Mula, Muath Alghamdi, Aljohrah Mohammed Al-Hunaif, Ali Hassan Siddiq alkhaldi, Nouf Ali Abdullah Asiri, Ibrahim A Al- Hajji, Razan Ali Alshehri

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 7, Pages 4675-4682

Objective: This study aimed to evaluate the link between intense smartphone usage and its association with musculoskeletal pain. Methodology: This Observational cross-sectional study was conducted using a pre-designed Google form-based questionnaire distributed via social media. The questionnaire comprises sociodemographic information, musculoskeletal pain, and its association with the usage of smartphones. The data were analyzed using SPSS version 22.0. Data were considered statistically significant at P < 0.05. Results: It was observed that musculoskeletal pain was significantly associated with smartphone usage. Neck pain was the most reported pain (45%), followed by shoulder and wrist/hand pain (33%). Poor posture maintenance due to smartphone dependency or addiction was the major contributor to smartphone-associated musculoskeletal pain. Conclusion: Neck pain was found to be the most prevalent smartphone-associated muscle pain, and the severity of pain is associated with poor posture and the amount of time spent on smartphone usage.

Oral Cancer Knowledge, Attitudes And Practices: A Survey Of Undergraduate Medical And Dental Student At University Of Hail, Saudi Arabia

Dr. Abdulaziz Saad Alqahtani , Dhari Hamoud AlDhamadi , Omar Awwad AlGharbi , Abdullah Mesfer AlQahtani

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 3, Pages 5461-5478

Aim:
The aim of this study is to investigate the Oral cancer knowledge, attitudes and practices of undergraduate medical and dental student at university of hail, Saudi Arabia.
Objectives:
To assess knowledge, attitudes and practices of oral cancer among medical and dental students.
Materials and Methods
Study Design Cross-sectional study. Study population clinical year’sundergraduate medical and dental student at hail university in Saudi Arabia. Sample collection Pre-validated Online questionnaire. Sample collection and processing pre-validated and translated self-administered electronic questionnaire. The sample size was calculated by using the Raosoft sample size calculator. We will be collecting a sample size of 241, with a confidence level of 95% and a margin of error of 5%.Statistical Analysis The statistical analysis will be processed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) software version 25 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA). 
Ethical Consent
Ethical approval obtained from the ethical committee of university of hail.
 
Rationale:
In Saudi Arabia only a few studies have been conducted to assess medical or dental undergraduate OC knowledge. And no known studies to date were done to compare between medical and dental undergraduate OC knowledge in Saudi Arabia.
Results:
A total of 241 students from hail university completed the study questionnaire. A total of 186 students (77.2%) were from college of medicine and 55 (22.8%) were from college of dentistry. A total of 141 (58.5%) students were males. As for their academic year, 120 students (49.8%) were at 4th grade, 53 (22%) were at 5th grade, 42 (17.4%) were at 6th grade while 26 (10.8%) were interns. This study showed that most of hail university undergraduates are aware and had accepted knowledge towered oral cancer

THE EFFECTIVENESS OF DIABETES MELLITUS KNOWLEDGE AMONG DIABETIC IN HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS AT MAKKAH AL-MOKARRAMAH IN SAUDI ARABIA 2021: A CROSS SECTIONAL STUDY

Mohammad Hamzah Mlibary, Hassan Ali Mohammad Saeed Alahmadi , Yasser Ali Mohammad Saeed Alahmadi, Ahmed Mohsen Bakheet Alharbi, Mohammed Mohsen Bakheet Alharbi, Fahad Mohammed Mosfer Alqarni, Abdulaziz Abdullahh Mayudh Alwuthaynani, Adil Awad Mobark Allehyani

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 4, Pages 2942-2955

Diabetes is a major, non-communicable disease with increasing prevalence globally and
will be the seventh leading cause of death worldwide by 2030 as estimated by the WHO
report in 2011. Saudi Arabia is considered to be one of the highest countries in the Middle
East for the incidence of diabetes mellitus. Type 2 diabetes affects the most productive
midlife period but has also started to appear in younger age groups. Type 2 diabetes is now
increasingly diagnosed among adolescents and young adults, data are lacking regarding
knowledge about diabetes mellitus among school students in Saudi Arabia but it is a
potentially preventable disease through a combination of lifestyle modification and
pharmaceutical treatment.

Assessment of the willingness to Vaccinate Against COVID-19 Among Adult Saudi Population in Makkah AL-Mokarramah, 2021

Turki Mohammed Abdulqader Maghrabi1; Rani Omar A Alnabati1; Sondos abdelmalik aboukhashaba; Abeer ali alharbi; Khalid Mohammed A Alobaid; Hani Ahmed H Alharbi; Yahya Helal H Almalki; Ahmed Saeed Ahmed Almalk; Ali Marzook Albajali; ,Abdullah Faisal Ahmed Alhazmi; Ayman Mohammed H Aljabri; Balqassm Ahmaed Almalki; Yousef Ahmed Ali AlghamdI

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 4, Pages 3399-3415

Background: Vaccination against COVID-19 is the key to controlling the pandemic. Vaccines are a critical new tool in the battle against COVID-19 and it is hugely encouraging to see so many vaccines proving successful and going into development, vaccines save millions of lives each year. Vaccine hesitancy is a potential threat to global public health. Since there is a vaccine against the COVID-19 pandemic, much less is known about its acceptance in the community. It is important to understand the correlates of COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy in the Saudi public and the reasons why individuals intend to refuse a COVID-19 vaccine. The COVID-19 vaccine is an effective measure to manage the pandemic as it prevents severe illness and death. Developing immunity through vaccination means there is a reduced risk of developing the illness and its consequences. This immunity helps you fight the virus if exposed.

Impact of Prevalence of depression among physicians in major hospitals in Makkah Al-Mukarramah Saudi Arabia 2021

Mohammed Hassan Alessa, Nahla Muhammad Hariri, Nedaa Sami Banjar, Hana Mohammed Al-Olayani, Rehab Salem Al-Awad, Dlwl Rabeh Almutairi, Motla Ahmad Abdullah Almowld, Abdulrhman Ahmed Almowalad, Hanan Zakria Esmail Alhawsa, Ghazwah Suliman Mansi Almwaild, Ali Marzook Albajali, Rehab Atiy Alharbi

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 4, Pages 3382-3398

Physicians are exposed to many stressors, such as the burden imposed by expectations of a high degree of professionalism, responsibility for patient well-being and maintenance of relationships with patients and health workers, depression among physicians during the COVID-19 pandemic in the Saudi Arabia are not well described and their modifiable causes are poorly understood. During their first year of medical residency (internship), of training physicians in the Saudi Arabia suffer at least one depression episode whether there is a similar increase of depression among first year residents Saudi Arabia as well as concerns about medical errors and malpractice litigation. Depression is an emotional disturbance that leads to deterioration of abilities and daily activities; and it is considered to be a major public health problem and a leading predictor of functional disability and mortality. Physicians’ work is characterized by long working hours. Some studies have reported that lengthy working hours can be associated with depression in particular occupational settings. Aim of study: To Prevalence of depression among physicians in major hospitals in Makkah Al-Mukarramah Saudi Arabia 2021. Methods this was a Cross-sectional study among physicians in major hospitals in Makkah Al-Mukarramah Saudi Arabia , this study has be conducted only 3 major hospitals in ministry of health inside the Makkah Al-Mukarramah city (in King Abdul-Aziz Specialist Hospital, King Faisal Hospital and Ajyad General Hospital), a sample size through the epi program was (291) doctors. The researcher has been using a questionnaire covering socio-demographic data and Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9). The socio-demographic data contains 15 multiple-choice questions It has been written in English language and will be valid from 3 consultant.

Assessment Knowledge regarding Prevalence of Electronic Cigarettes Use Among health care providers in the Primary Health Care in Makkah AL-Mokarramah Saudi Arabia, 2021

faf Abdulhameed Abbas Alturkistani, Luay Abuobidah Rafie, Saeed Rashed Alshehri

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 4, Pages 3310-3324

      Most health care providers are aware of e-cigarettes, but the information is scarce regarding the magnitude of this newly emerged habit in Saudi Arabia, since introduction in the early 2000s, e-cigarette use has rapidly increased among adolescents worldwide. Then adult However, little is known about e-cigarette uptake among adolescents in Saudi Arabia. Tobacco smoking is highly prevalent in Saudi Arabia, and there is a need to reduce the resultant health burden via patient-oriented smoking cessation interventions. Primary care physicians (PCPs) have a significant role in providing counseling and advice to quit smoking.
World Health Organization (WHO) reported tobacco use as one of the biggest public health threats the world has ever faced. WHO report on the global tobacco epidemic, mentioned that in 2015, over one billion people smoked tobacco. This study aimed to assess Prevalence of Electronic Cigarettes Use Among health care providers in the Primary Health Care in Makkah,  Although it is declining worldwide in many countries, the prevalence of tobacco smoking appears to be increasing in the Eastern Mediterranean Region. Aim of the study: To
Assessment Knowledge regarding Prevalence of Electronic Cigarettes Use Among health care providers in the Primary Health Care in Makkah AL-Mokarramah Saudi Arabia, 2021. methods: Cross-sectional study was carried out, including a random representative sample of health care providers in the Primary Health Care in Makkah. A self-administered validated questionnaire was adopted and modified. The Sample size of medical practitioners . Our total participants were (500) Results. The study showed that the majority of the participant were (52.0%) smoker regarding smoking period the majority while <5 were (35.0%), Current use of e-cigarettes were(72.0%) and (30.0%) of the participant knew that the electronic cigarettes contain nicotine whereas 56.15% did not know if e-cigarettes contain nicotine or not. Most of the students (75.0%) thought that the electronic cigarette is harmful to health Conclusion: The prevalence of e-cigarettes smoking among health care providers in the Primary Health Care in Makkah. was found relatively high and most common reasons to smoke e-cigarettes were similar taste to conventional cigarettes, adequate nicotine, helping in control of smoking behavior, perceived less harmful effects than conventional cigarettes, and low cost. E-cigarettes have been tried and currently used by a considerable proportion of health care providers. Some associated factors were identified

Awareness of the Impact of COVID-19 virus on the depression on Population at Saudi Arabia at Makkah in Saudi Arabia 2021

Moaaz Mohammed Fadelelahy, Basem Saad Alghamdi, Molham Emam Badry

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 4, Pages 3210-3226

      The COVID-19 pandemic in KSA resulted in a nationwide quarantine on March 27th, 2020. This study represents the assessment of rates of depression in the general population of KSA during the pandemic. The COVID-19 pandemic has created an unprecedented global crisis, necessitating drastic changes to living conditions, social life, personal freedom and economic activity.  study has yet examined the presence of depression symptoms in the KSA population under similar conditions. Patients at risk of severe SARS-CoV-2 acute respiratory syndrome are characterised by the high prevalence of pre-existing diseases (high blood pressure and cardiovascular disease, diabetes, chronic respiratory disease, or cancer), most of them typically present in severely depression patients. Indeed, the biological role of adipose tissue in sustaining SARS-CoV-2 infection is not completely elucidated. Aim of the study: To assessment the awareness of the Impact of COVID-19 virus on the depression on Population at Saudi Arabia at Makkah in Saudi Arabia 2021 Method : Across-sectional study among Population residents in primary health care center in Makkah Al-Mukarramah was conducted using an online questionnaire designed during April 2021. The questionnaire collected socio-demographic characteristics, depression Symptoms in participants before and during the COVID-19 Pandemic (via the PHQ-9 patient depression questionnaire) our total participants were (200). Results: most of the participants (41.0%) were in the age group more than 60 years  follow by the (37.0%)were in the age 30-40 years, the majority of them were female (27.0%) while male(28.0%), regarding  the marital status most of participants married were(44.0%), regarding level of education the majority of participant are Primary/ Intermediate were(35.0%), regarding Chronic Medical conditions the majority of participant are Diabetes were(42.0%) while High blood pressure were(33.0%) , regarding  the Working/studying from home most of participants answer No were(74.0%)while answer Yes were(15.33%).Conclusion: The research's showed increase in the prevalence of mental health problems and depression in the early stages of the pandemic, and these problems were predicted by several specific COVID related variables. Further similar surveys, particularly of those with children at home, are required as the pandemic progresses. In addition Anxiety and depression levels amongst Population at Saudi Arabia in healthcare were found to be high when assessed during the COVID-19 pandemic

Assessing Physical activity and Perceived barriers among physicians in Primary Health Care in Makkah city.Cross sectional 2021

Ayman Afif Jaha, Shaker Musleh Alhuthali, Saud Hassan Ali Al-Sakhry

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 4, Pages 3092-3108

Regular physical activity can play an important role in both the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular disease, hypertension, noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, stroke, some cancers, osteoporosis and depression, as well as improving the lipid profile.' A met analysis of the relation between physical activity and coronary heart disease reported that the relative risk of coronary heart disease death in the least active compared with the most active was 1 9-fold.

THE EFFECT OF OBESITY AND ITS ASSOCIATED RISK FACTORS ON PATIENTS WITH TYPE 2 DIABETES WHO ATTEND IN PRIMARY HEALTH CARE CENTER IN MAKKAH AL-MOKARRAMAH 2021

Dalia Awad Eid Aljohani, Abdullah Ali Atoodi, Salem Mansour Algorashi, Abdullah Eidhah Mohammed Almalki, Ola Jameel Filfilan, Afnan Adnan Abdullah Bukhari, Meyaser Adnan Sembawah, Juman Maid Albajaly, Saeed Safran Husseen Al-Malki, Nisreen Mater Khader Allehyani, Ateeq Ali Naffaa Albeshri , Fahad Salem Alsolami

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 4, Pages 3006-3022

Background:
     Overweight and obesity constitute a global pandemic with devastating consequences that affect >2 billion people. Obesity plays a central role in morbidity and mortality of diseases of multiple organs and systems, and it is a major contributor to the growing incidence of type 2 diabetes. There is now sufficient level of evidence for the association between overweight and type 2 diabetes, among which are the most common type 2 diabetes worldwide.  Obesity results from a combination of personal and societal factors, but is often viewed as a character flaw rather than a medical condition. This leads to stigma and discrimination towards obese individuals and decreases the likelihood of effective intervention. Conditions related to obesity are increasingly common, such as metabolic syndrome, impaired fasting glucose (IFG) and impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), all of which indicate high risk for type 2 diabetes (T2DM). Sedentary lifestyle, unhealthy diet, and excessive alcohol intake also account for the burden of type 2 diabetes by promoting obesity. The risk of specific type 2 diabetes is also directly influenced, regardless of the magnitude of adiposity, by physical inactivity, consumption of red meat, processed meat and ultra-processed foods, dairy products, alcohol, whole grain cereals, nuts, vegetables, and fruits. The study aimed: To assess the effect of obesity and its associated risk factors on patients with type 2 diabetes who attend in primary health care center in Makkah al-Mokarramah 2021. Method: A cross-sectional study was conducted among patients with type 2 diabetes and obesity who registered in the chronic disease clinic attended diabetes centre in Makkah at Saudi Arabia in 2021. Our total participants were (300).Results: the total number of participants was 300 were males and female. The participants were classified into 3 age groups, most of them were (54.3%)in the <30 years fallowed by 39-50 years were(29.3%),  regarding gender of  participated male were (70.3%), follow by female were(29.7 %), type of treatment do you use for diabetes, results show a significant relation between BMI and what type of treatment do you use for diabetes, also complications from diabetes, results show a significant relation between BMI and complications from diabetes, Physical activities or exercise, results show a significant relation between BMI and Physical activities or exercise. Eating a portion of fruit, results a significant relation between BMI and Eating a portion of fruit, eating a portion of vegetables, results show a significant relation between BMI and Eating a portion of vegetables Conclusion: Obesity is a highly prevalent comorbidity in type 2 diabetic patients.  Some modifiable risk factors were identified. Multidisciplinary effort is warranted to reduce obesity among type 2 diabetic patients.  appears to be a better indicator of diabetic risk than BMI. The combination of a low-calorie diet, increased physical activity, and behavioral therapy as the first-line intervention for weight loss should be stressed for the effective management of T2diabetic patients.

COVID-19: Fear and anxiety among healthcare students in Saudi Arabia: A cross-sectional study

Sameer Shaikh; Syed Fareed Mohsin; Muhammad Atif Saleem Agwan; Saqib Ali; Ziyad Ahmad Alsuwaydani; Saleh Ahmad AlSuwaydani

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 1638-1647

Coronavirus disease of 2019 (COVID-19) is a newly discovered respiratory syndrome which has adversely affected millions of people around the world. The study aims to estimate the psychological impacts of COVID-19 in the form of fear and anxiety among the healthcare students of the Central Region of Saudi Arabia. A cross-sectional study was conducted amongst health care students in Saudi Arabia. A non-probability convenience samplingapproach was adopted to collect data by mean of an online questionnaire on social media. The sample size was determined by using Epi info software; the minimum sample required for this study was 567. Likert scale with five points was used to measure healthcare students' fear and anxiety level. Data were analysed using SPSS version 23. The descriptive data were expressed as frequencies and percentages. Spearman correlation was used to determine the strength of the relationship between variables. Amongst 571 health care students, 359 were males, and 212 were females. Data revealed that 84 (15%) of students had a severe level of anxiety, 438 (77%) had a moderate level of anxiety and 49 (9%) of the students had mild level of anxiety. Correlation coefficient was found insignificant between gender, academic year and institute (=0.066, p=0.116), (=0.018, p=0.661) and (=0.034, p=0.423) respectively. The COVID-19 pandemic has a negative impact on higher education because of the long-lasting pandemic situation. Our study's results illustrate the critical need to implement approaches and prevention measures to address healthcare students' mental health.

The Impact Of Coronavirus (Covid-19) Pandemic On Retail Business In Saudi Arabia: A Theoretical Review

Saad Alflayyeh; Haseebullah .; Fozi Ali Belhaj

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 3547-3554

Key purpose of this study is to study the impact of coronavirus (Covid-19) crisis on the retail business in Saudi Arabia. The conventional brick and mortar retail business has been following a downward trend over the years with e-retailing exponentially growing during the lockdown period of corona pandemic. It was also noticed that customer preferences and purchasing behaviour are also experiencing a gradual shift from the earlier patterns. In the wake of such adversity, where businesses have collapsed, the study has tried to understand the factors responsible for affecting the retail industries in the kingdom with some key learnings.

Assessment of Prevalence of Workplace Violence among Nurses and Physicians at Emergency Department in Primary Health Care Centers, Makkah, 2019.

Zahid Mohammed Zahid Serdar, Mane Mueen Shalah Alotaibi, Samirah Tawfiq S Albeladi, Adnan Awadh Alwuthaynani, Hanan Abdullah Turkstani, Sara Mohammed Barahim, Hadi Helal Alotaibi, Abdullah Abed Alotaibi, Hayat Abdullah Alzahrani Babaynjy

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2019, Volume 6, Issue 1, Pages 585-596

Background
Workplace violence (WPV) is a serious worldwide concern, especially for health care professionals when
compared with workers in other industries. Violence in the health care sector harms both patients and health
care professionals and causes enormous economic losses. Victims of WPV show signs of anxiety, depression,
and low efficiency in their work performance, which may decrease the quality of the service that they provide.
Among health care professionals, nurses who have direct contact with patients face numerous risks related to
WPV. Therefore, it is important to recognize risk factors that can be used to reduce the incidence of WPV
against nurses. Emergency healthcare workers (HCWs) have a high risk of exposure to violence with negative
personal consequences. Violence is an occupational hazard in hospitals. Occupational researches have gradually
shifted focus from traditional, visible environmental risk factors, such as physical, chemical, biological exposure
or ergonomic problems, to the invisible, psychological harm that maybe present in the workplace.
Aim of the study: To assessment of Prevalence of Workplace Violence among and Nurses and Physicians at
Emergency Department in Primary Health Care Centers and confirm the factors influencing such violence.
Method: Cross-sectional analytical study has been conducted at emergency departments (EDs), Primary Health
Care Centers in Makkah city, during data collection period 2019, the total sample has been (400) nurses and
physicians.
Results: Regarding the age the highest age were (35.0%) were (30-40) years and the data ranged from (22-57)
by mean ±SD (38.315±9.816), were females (57.0%)while males. The majority of the participated nurse were
(67.0%), followed by doctor were (33.0%). Regarding the qualification, the majority of participated heave
Bachelor were (28.0%) followed by Resident (21.0%), the participated experience in from 6-10 years were (31.
0%).More than half of the participants were yes to physical or verbal violence and their percentage was (75.
0%).Conclusion: Workplace violence was prevalent, and verbal abuse was the commonest type among HCWs in
emergency departments of PHC. Workplace violence, a possible cause of job stress, has recently become an
important concern in occupational health. Almost half of the ED nurses and physicians experienced one or more
WPV incident.

Assessment Of The Knowledge Diabetic Retinopathy Among Patients With Type 2 Diabetes At Makkah, Saudi Arabia 2019. Cross-Sectional Study

Adel Saeed Ali Alzahrani, Nawaf Suhaim Al-Atiani

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2019, Volume 6, Issue 1, Pages 543-556

1. Background
Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is a well-known complication of diabetes mellitus (DM) and a major cause of
vision loss. Increased knowledge of DR is crucial for the prevention and early diagnosis of the disease and
preservation of vision, diabetes mellitus is a disorder, characterized by an imbalance in blood glucose
levels. The prevalence of diabetes mellitus is increasing globally.The global diabetes prevalence in 2019 is
estimated to be 9.3% (463 million people), rising to 10.2% (578 million) by 2030 and 10.9% (700 million)
by 2045. Long term, continuous hyperglycemia leads to vasculature-related disorders, including those
affecting the eyes, such as retinopathy, diabetes mellitus is an endocrine disease with chronic elevation in
blood glucose levels. If not managed, it can lead to multi-organ damage also diabetes mellitus is a
metabolic disease that is characterized by distortion in the metabolism of carbohydrates, lipids, and
proteins and involves hyperglycemia. Diabetes mellitus has different types. Several complications are
associated with diabetes including diabetic retinopathy.
This study aimed: This study aims to assess the knowledge of diabetic retinopathy and compliance with
diabetic retinopathy patients in Makkah, Saudi Arabia.
Methods: cross-sectional study was conducted among the diabetic population from May to September 2019
in Makkah, Saudi Arabia. The patients were selected randomly from the general population visiting the
Makkah diabetic center and primary healthcare clinics in Makkah. A self-administered questionnaire was
distributed to assess the knowledge of diabetes and its complication diabetic retinopathy. Our total
participants were (300)
Results: Conclusion: The level of knowledge regarding diabetic retinopathy among participants with
diabetes type 2 in Makkah is relatively high. However, participants’ motivation to attend an ophthalmology
clinic for an eye assessment was poor in the study, thus delay early diagnosis and management.

ASSESSMENT OF DIABETES MELLITUS KNOWLEDGE AMONG DIABETIC SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS AT MAKKAH IN SAUDI ARABIA 2019

Mohammed Hassaan Mohdher, Nasser Duraymih Odis Alotaibi, Fahad AbdulrahmanAtiyyah Albishri, Hanadimfwiez al mowalad, Moshari Mansour Ward Alotaibi, HamedMashhoor Alshanbari Amin Hamed Mohammed Alsalmi, AbdulazizAbdulrhman Allihyani, Ahmed MusaedHumaid Al-Ghamdi, MusferMasoud Ali Almajnooni, Bandar Mabruk Almabadi

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2019, Volume 6, Issue 1, Pages 533-542

Background:
       Saudi Arabia is considered to be one of the highest countries in the Middle East for the incidence of diabetes mellitus. Data are lacking regarding knowledge about diabetes mellitus among school students in Saudi Arabia. Diabetes mellitus is a major metabolic disorder currently affecting over 350 million people worldwide. Also, another one billion people in the world are pre-diabetic, who may eventually end up with full- blown diabetes. Type 2 diabetes mellitus is fast becoming a global epidemic and the number of individuals with diabetes in the world is expected to reach 330 million by 2030. The rate of T2DM is rapidly increasing in developing countries, particularly among younger age groups a cross-sectional study indicated that Saudi adolescents exhibited more health-related knowledge than the older population; the majority of the adolescents believed that obesity was dangerous and that regular exercise was beneficial for their health. Saudi adolescents are at a high risk of developing diabetes as many suffer from obesity, a sedentary lifestyle and hereditary diabetes. In 2004, almost a quarter (23.7%) of the Saudi population was diagnosed with T2DM; this was 10 times the number of diabetic individuals in 1980.6 The occurrence of T2DM has been linked to the high rate of overweight adults (35.5%) in the Saudi population and the number of overweight and obese Saudi adolescents is high among both genders.
Aim of the study: The study aimed to assess the knowledge of diabetes mellitus among secondary school students at the Makkah in Saudi Arabia 2019.
Method: cross sectional descriptive study conducted among secondary school students at Makkah, during the April to June, 2019, the Sample size of diabetic secondary school students. Our total participants were (500).
Results:knowledge of the participant toward diabetes mellitus study results show the majority of participant had average information were(61.0%) while weak knowledge were (31.0%) the data ranged from (4-13) by mean ±SD (9.011±2.314).
Conclusion: The level of knowledge and awareness of a considerable number of high school students regarding DM was inadequate, and some of them possessed various misconceptions about this particular chronic disease. Health authorities and school authorities in the region should offer special efforts to improve the level of knowledge and awareness of the students through regular health education campaigns.Diabetes Day should be celebrated in all schools and workshops and lectures given by professionals in collaboration with Ministry of Health on this day are recommended to increase the level of awareness of diabetes

ASSESSMENT OF THE PREVALENCE OF PHYSICAL ACTIVITY AMONG ADULT PATIENTS ATTENDING PRIMARY HEALTH CARE CENTERS IN MAKKAH ALMOKARRAMAH, SAUDI ARABIA 2019.

Olfat fuad Qaffas, Bodour badr almotairi, Badreyah Mohammed Otaif, Sami Saad Alghamdi, Ayman Attia Al-Harbi, Fuzan Ali Almajnooni, Nawaf Ali Alshamrani Faker Hamed Alhassani, Ahmed Ali Alghamdi, Mohsen Mutlaq Saad Al Qurashi, Ghali Marzoog Almajnooni

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2019, Volume 6, Issue 1, Pages 501-512

Background:
     Physical activity (PA) is defined as any bodily movement produced by the contraction of skeletal muscles that results in a substantial increase in caloric requirements over resting energy expenditure. According to the World Health Organization(WHO), physical inactivity is considered the fourth leading risk factor for global mortality. Physical inactivity is associated with excess weight and adverse health outcomes. In particular, office-based screening of activity levels and physical activity counseling coupled with regular follow-ups and community support and referrals for physical activity, have been proven effective in increasing physical activity levels. In addition, the cost of integrating physical activity counseling and referral schemes into primary health care teams has been found feasible and cost-effective Physical activity can be defined as any movement of the body that requires energy expenditure.
 
Aim of this study: To Assessment of the Prevalence of Physical Activity among Adult Patients attend primary health care centers in Makkah city, Saudi Arabia.
 
 Methodology: Cross sectional design has been adopted. The study has been conducted in Makkah city, Saudi Arabia. The present study was conducted at primary health care centres in Makkah city. Systematic random sampling was being adopted to select persons during the March to June, 2019.The sample (300).
 Results: Exercise milieu these study results showed that Positive Exercise milieu proportions (62.0%), and Negative Exercise milieu proportions (38.0% ) while  the Range  (8-22)  Mean +SD (13.254±3.215) while Time expenditure the most of them negative were(69.0%)but positive (31.0%)while the Range (6-13) Mean +SD (10.812±2.77)
 
Conclusion: Physical inactivity among Arab adults and children/adolescents is high. Studies using harmonized approaches, rigorous analytic techniques and a deeper examination of context are needed to design appropriate interventions. Physical activity likely has a greater role in promoting health in disease populations than previously thought and may confer substantial reductions in disease burden Primary health care centers in Makkah should be active and able to provide health advice and behaviour to their patients. There will a strong intention to increase physical activity among physically inactive primary care physicians (PHCPs).

PREVALENCE OF ELECTRONIC CIGARETTES USE AMONG HEALTH CARE PROVIDERS IN THE PRIMARY HEALTH CARE IN MAKKAH, 2019

Fayza Ramadan Hawsawi, Ahmad Zuhair Mashat, Hajer Gali Alharbi, Salwa Ali Hassan, Eman Hamed Allogmani, Adnan Abdulqader Qeder, Rushdi Hisun Alhakami Laila Abdo Barnawi,Kefah Mohammed Algamdi, Ahmad awadh Alkhdedi

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2019, Volume 6, Issue 1, Pages 427-436

background: Most health care providers are aware of e-cigarettes, but the information is scarce regarding the magnitude of this newly emerged habit in Saudi Arabia, since introduction in the early 2000s, e-cigarette use has rapidly increased among adolescents worldwide. then adult  However, little is known about e-cigarette uptake among adolescents in Saudi Arabia. Tobacco smoking is highly prevalent in Saudi Arabia, and there is a need to reduce the resultant health burden via patient-oriented smoking cessation interventions. Primary care physicians (PCPs) have a significant role in providing counseling and advice to quit smoking.
World Health Organization (WHO) reported tobacco use as one of the biggest public health threats the world has ever faced. WHO report on the global tobacco epidemic, mentioned that in 2015, over one billion people smoked tobacco. This study aimed to assess Prevalence of Electronic Cigarettes Use Among health care providers in the Primary Health Care in Makkah, Although it is declining worldwide in many countries, the prevalence of tobacco smoking appears to be increasing in the Eastern Mediterranean Region
.Aim of the study
This study aimed to assess Prevalence of Electronic Cigarettes Use Among health care providers in the Primary Health Care in Makkah 2019.
methods:Cross-sectional descriptive study was carried out, including a random representative sample of health care providersin the Primary Health Care in Makkah.A self-administered validated questionnaire was adopted and modified. The Sample size of medical practitioners . Our total participants were (500)
Results: showed that the majority of the participant were (52.0%) smoker regarding smoking period the majority while <5 were (35.0%), Current use of e-cigarettes were(72.0%) and (30.0%) of the participant knew that the electronic cigarettes contain nicotine whereas 56.15% did not know if e-cigarettes contain nicotine or not. Most of the students (75.0%) thought that the electronic cigarette is harmful to health.
Conclusion:The prevalence of e-cigarettes smoking among health care providers in the Primary Health Care in Makkah. was found relatively high and most common reasons to smoke e-cigarettes were similar taste to conventional cigarettes, adequate nicotine, helping in control of smoking behavior, perceived less harmful effects than conventional cigarettes, and low cost. E-cigarettes have been tried and currently used by a considerable proportion of health care providers. Some associated factors were identified.

ASSESSMENT OF PREVALENCE OF WORKPLACE VIOLENCE AMONG NURSES AND PHYSICIANS AT EMERGENCY DEPARTMENT IN PRIMARY HEALTH CARE CENTERS, MAKKAH, 2019

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2019, Volume 6, Issue 1, Pages 351-362

Background:  Workplace violence (WPV) is a serious worldwide concern, especially for health care professionals when compared with workers in other industries. Violence in the health care sector harms both patients and health care professionals and causes enormous economic losses. Victims of WPV show signs of anxiety, depression, and low efficiency in their work performance, which may decrease the quality of the service that they provide. Among health care professionals, nurses who have direct contact with patients face numerous risks related to WPV. Therefore, it is important to recognize risk factors that can be used to reduce the incidence of WPV against nurses. Emergency healthcare workers (HCWs) have a high risk of exposure to violence with negative personal consequences. Violence is an occupational hazard in hospitals. Occupational researches have gradually shifted focus from traditional, visible environmental risk factors, such as physical, chemical, biological exposure or ergonomic problems, to the invisible, psychological harm that maybe present in the workplace.
Aim of the study: To assessment of Prevalence  of Workplace Violence among  and Nurses and Physicians at Emergency Department in  Primary Health Care Centers and confirm the factors influencing such violence.
Method: Cross-sectional analytical study has been conducted at emergency departments (EDs), Primary Health Care Centers in
Makkah city, during data collection period 2019, the total sample has been (400) nurses and physicians.
Results: Regarding the age the highest age were (35.0%) were (30-40) years and the data ranged from (22-57) by mean ±SD (38.315±9.816), were females (57.0%)while males. The majority of the participated nurse were(67.0%), followed by doctor were(33.0%). Regarding the qualification, the majority of participated heave Bachelor were (28.0%) followed by Resident (21.0%), the participated experience in from 6-10 years were (31. 0%).More than half of the participants were yes to physical or verbal violence and their percentage was (75. 0%).Conclusion: Workplace violence was prevalent, and verbal abuse was the commonest type among HCWs in emergency departments of PHC.  Workplace violence, a possible cause of job stress, has recently become an important concern in occupational health. Almost half of the ED nurses and physicians experienced one or more WPV incident.

ASSESSMENT OF KNOWLEDGE AND ATTITUDES OF PATIENTS ATTENDING IN PRIMARY HEALTH CARE ABOUT THE SEASONAL INFLUENZA IMMUNIZATION AT MAKKAH AL-MOKARRAMAH 2019

Sabah Ali Alwahat, Ahmad Muhymeed Alqurashi, Maram Mofareh Alotaibi, Jamilah Hamid Almalky, Hussam saleh hassan heji Fouad Mohammed Alshehri, Adil Awad Mobark Allehyani, Talal Ghali Salman Alsehli, Yahya Ali Dosh, Eyad mohammed ali shelaiyah

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2019, Volume 6, Issue 1, Pages 314-326

Background
seasonal influenzavaccination is essential for population health. However, despite its strong recommendation, studies indicated a low rate of vaccine response. Influenza is a serious disease that can cause hospitalization, intubation, and death in high-risk groups. Influenza complications are due to changes in the immune, respiratory, and cardiovascular systems. Patients  with an influenza infection are at increased risk of severe illness and complications and have a higher mortality and morbidity rate. Despite the significant role of seasonal influenza vaccination in preventing and minimizing the serious complications of influenza infection in patients, unsatisfactory compliance still exists for vaccination. Vaccination against influenza is the main way to reduce the substantial health burden that seasonal influenza causes, and is the primary tool to prevent influenza infection. The Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices at the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recommended that all people above age 6 months receive the influenza vaccination annually unless contraindicated
. Aim of the study:To explore knowledge and attitudes of patients attending in Primary Health Care about the seasonal influenza Immunization at  Makkah Al-Mokarramah 2019.
Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted among 200 participants from  health care centers in Makkah Al-Mokarramah city. A validated self-administered questionnaire was used. It includes questions on sociodemographic variables, knowledge, attitude, and vaccine response. during the September to December 2019.
 Results:the majority of participant (50.5%) have average of the knowledge towards seasonal influenza vaccination followed by (29.0%) of participant high while Range(3-9) and Mean ±SD(6.390±1.781), X225 P=0.001also shows the majority of participant (50.5%) have average of the knowledge towards seasonal influenza vaccination followed by (29.0%) of participant high while Range(3-9) and Mean ±SD(6.390±1.781), X225 P=0.001
Conclusion:The study showed poor knowledge and attitude toward seasonal influenza Immunization among patients and general population but a relatively accepted rate of vaccine response. Vaccination response was associated with knowledge, marital status, education, and age. This study recommends implementation of the health educational programs to increase the knowledge to the patients and general population.

PREVALENCE OF STRESS AND ITS ASSOCIATION WITH BODY WEIGHT AMONG HEALTH CARE WORKERIN PRIMARY HEALTH CARE CENTERS, MAKKAH, 2019

Faisal Raad Mohcen Alsharif, Faisal Salman Rashid ALsaedi, Najwa Ali Hassan Huraysi, Alaa Hussain Alhazmy, Abdullah Saad Alghamdi, Naif Moed al Huzali Sameeha Ahmad Yamani, Ahmed Matooq Ahmed Khan, Jameela Jameel Abdulrhman Murshid, Hamza Osama Hamza Murad

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2019, Volume 6, Issue 1, Pages 363-374

Background
Obesity is emerging as a serious problem throughout the world, not only among adults, but also health care worker and children, teenagers and young adults. Of the factors contributing to obesity, stress seems to be particularly important as stressful condition leads to irregularity in worker in work, lack of exercise and addiction also considered independent and factors leading to stress. Workers in the health care is stressful throughout the whole work time. The amount of material to be absorbed, social isolation, pressure of examination, discrepancies between expectation and reality all can be anticipated to bring psychological stress. Prevalence of Stress and its Association with Body Weight Among health care worker,
Prevalence of stress and its Association with Body Weight Among health care worker fears related to stress have affected a considerable number of health care worker, especially the nursing category,studies have shown that healthcare workers managing patients have been experiencing worse psychological issues such as stress than the public because they are more likely to get infected and transmit the infection to their relatives and friends.
Aim of the study: To assessment of the prevalence of stress and its association with Body Weight Among health care workerin Primary Health Care Centers in makkah 2019
Method:Cross-sectional analytical study has been conducted health care workers at Primary Health Care Centers in Makkah city, that included all health care worker during data collection period 2019 the perceived stress scale-10 questionnaire used to measure the stress score. Weight and height were collected based on self-reported value.  the total sample has been (400) nurses, physicians and other
Result:the majority of the respondents were married status were (75.0%) while other were (14.0%).  The association between the stress and stress score most of the participant moderate Stress were constitutes (47.75%) followed by low stress the were constitutes (44.75%) while a statistically significant (P-value =0.001) and Chi-square (120.665), the Range (5-45) (Mean ± SD (25.441±6.125).
 Conclusion:Stress is prevalent among health care worker at Primary Health Care Centers, Makkah we found a positive correlation between BMI and stress but no statistically significant association between gender and stress level. Preventive measures should be implanted to reduce the level of stress and interventional studies are needed among health care worker at Primary Health Care Centers.