Online ISSN: 2515-8260

Keywords : Intensity

Immunohistochemical Expression of P16 0n CIN and Cervical Cancer

VariganjiSandhya Krupal, Bollineni Prasad, M. Janaki

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 5, Pages 160-172

Cervical cancer is the second leading cause of female cancer mortalities, worldwide and 5,00,000 new cases are diagnosed annually in developing and developed countries. The epidemiological profile of the disease shows that Cervical cancer is related to sexual activity and associated with Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection.The high risk HPV types 16 and 18 are the most prevelant, representing 69.8% and 15% respectively in cases of invasive cancer. A persistent high-risk HPV infection is also a prerequisite for the development of Cervical cancer. Genomic integration of the viral genome can disrupt several cellular proteins resulting in the upregulation of the tumour suppressor gene P16INK4A which is a cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor.  Thus over-expression of p16 indicates an already advanced interference of the viral oncoproteins with cellular proteins involved in cell cycle regulation. The protein P16INK4 serves as a surrogate marker for the oncogenic activities of HPV in replication–competent cells of cervical epithelial and its over-expression is well established in Cervical intraepithelial neoplasia(CIN) and Invasive Squamous cell carcinoma(SCC) by many studies.
Aims and objectives
The study was a prospective study done from October 2013 to October 2015.The surgical biopsy specimens of uterine cervix were included in study.The main objective was to classify histopathological sections of uterine cervix by latest WHO criteria and study its association with P16INK4A immunostaining.Also to establish P16INK4A as marker of dysplastic and neoplastic epithelium and to correlate present study with results of other authors.
       A total uterine cervix specimens received and studied were 365.Hysterectomy
specimen were 237 and cervical biopsy specimen were 128. Out 128 cases of
Cervical biopsy ,sixty five cases were Chronic non specific cervitis ,sixteen cases were
CIN1,seven cases were CIN2,five cases were CIN3 and thirty seven cases were SCC.
For immunohistochemistry, all  cases of CIN lesion ,twelve cases of SCC,ten cases of 
CNSC  were subjected to IHC .Out of sixteen cases in CIN1, thirteen cases showed
patchy staining intensity and three case showed diffuse basal positivity.In CIN2 out of
seven  cases ,four cases were patchy positive ,three cases showed diffuse  basal
positivity .In CIN3 out of five cases,one case was diffuse basal positive and four cases
were diffuse full thickness positive , in SCC all the twelve cases showed diffuse full
thickness positivity and in CNSC all the ten cases were negative.
  In conclusion ,the current study shows the efficacy of P16INK4A as a marker for
screening cervical malignancies. Increasing staining intensity of P16INK4A from CIN1 to
SCC,makes it a marker of choice for cervical dyskaryosis.


MuratovaBaxora .

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 2, Pages 2124-2127

Process with independent increments in the theory of random processes contains concepts and theorems that allow us to build probabilistic models in decision-making problems. The Poisson process plays a crucial role in the construction of models. The article analyzes the Poisson process, which is a stochastic process that models many real-world
phenomena. The author defines the Poisson process and considers some examples of calculating the corresponding values associated with the Poisson process.


Dr. Vijay B S Gaur; Dr. Bindu Singh Gaur; Dr. Nazeem I. Siddiqui

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 8, Pages 1162-1169

Body Mass Index (BMI) has been viewed as a highest quality level for characterizing overweight and weight. BMI is a pointer of as a rule adiposity while Waist Circumference (WC) and Waist-to-Hip Ratio (WHR) are markers for stomach adiposity. The members were age-, sex and weight-facilitated preceding being discretionarily consigned into 3 social occasions, with 18 members for each get-together. The lively strolling pack was expected to energetic walk multiple times every week at a force of 60-70% of their specific age-foreseen most outrageous heartbeat for around two months. 50 subjects mean (FSD) age 45.7 F 9.4 years were randomly apportioned to it is conceivable that one lively walk. Results showed that there was more essential improvement in cardio-respiratory preparation for lively strolling and opposition planning get-togethers (p<0.01) at present mediation took a gander at on pre-intercession regard. There were also critical enhancements in level of muscle versus fat, weight record (BMI), abdomen hip proportion (WHR), and free fat mass in the energetic strolling gathering. Moreover, members in the obstruction getting ready pack had critical improvement in BMI, WHR. Hence, it is assumed that both energetic strolling and opposition getting ready for around two months were proper exercise modalities to decrease a part of the cardiovascular danger factors among overweight and stout people.