Online ISSN: 2515-8260

Keywords : COPD

To Study Association Between the Levels of Oxidative Stress Markers and Pulmonary Hypertension in Patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease at a Tertiary Care Hospital

Shinde Shivprasad, Karpe Sonal Prabhakar, Meshram Priti, Pundpal Gurudas Sadanand

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 3, Pages 5782-5788

Introduction: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a disease state
characterized by airflow limitation that is not fully reversible. An increased
inflammatory response in the lungs plays a central role in the pathogenesis of COPD.
Oxidative stress and systemic inflammation are co-dependent processes. Pulmonary
hypertension is a common complication of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
(COPD). The present study is an attempt to study the various markers of oxidative
stress in COPD and their co relation with pulmonary hypertensionusing 2D ECHO
Materials and Methods: The present study enrolled 100 participants, 50 of them
diagnosed cases of COPD and the remaining 50 as control. Apart from the chest X ray,
routine blood investigations, sputum AFB examination and PFT, 6-minute walk test
(6MWT), 2D Echo and levels of above mentioned oxidative and inflammatory markers
were done of the patients. Pulmonary hypertension diagnosed based on the
Transthoracic 2D – ECHO by TR jet method – presence of mPAP more than 25 mmHg
considered as the criteria for defining pulmonary hypertension. As far as the
quantitative data was concerned, comparison between the 2 groups was done using
unpaired t test, and for the qualitative data appropriate data was used.

Study to evaluate the effect of vitamin C supplement on pulmonary function test in COPDpatients.

Dr SatyendraPrajapati,Dr ArpitVerma, Dr BalajiGhugare, Dr Nikita Toshi

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 3, Pages 10715-10721

Introduction: A substantial body of evidence indicates that nutrition influences respiratory
health. Much of the nutrition research has focused on the intake of fruits, vegetables, and
antioxidant micronutrients, because lungs are subject to a wide range of oxidant induced insults
and because antioxidant defenses play an important role in protecting the lungs from damage.
Materials and methods: Seventy five patients with COPD were included in the study. In their
baseline clinical examination, malondialdehyde (MDA); red blood cell superoxide dismutase
(SOD) and erythrocyte glutathione peroxides (GPx) levels were measured. All the above
parameters were repeated after 12 weeks of supplementation with 1000 mg vitamin C daily.
Result: Serum MDA levels were significantly lowered, erythrocyte SOD and Gap activity were
significantly higher after supplementation of vitamin C. No significant improvement in FEV1
and FEV1/FVC was observed after 12 weeks of vitamin C supplementation.
Conclusion: The present study shows that the plasma lipid peroxide (MDA) levels were
decreased and antioxidants levels (GPx and SOD) increased after 12 weeks supplementation of
vitamin C in patients with COPD. Exogenous supplementation with vitamin C does not have any
significant effect on the spirometric measurements though it brings down the levels of MDA
showing attenuation of further damage.

Identification of infectious etiological agents in acute exacerbation of COPD

Dr. Ch Sandeep

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 1, Pages 936-941

Introduction-Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a common respiratory
condition involving the airways and characterized by airflow limitation.
According to the Global Burden of Disease Study 2010, COPD is the fourth leading cause
of death in the world and is projected to be third leading cause by 2020. The chronic course of
this disease is frequently accompanied by acute exacerbations, usuallydue to infections.
Materials and methods- A total of 50 patients were included in the study.The data was
collected using structured proforma including demographic data, clinical history and lab
investigations. Descriptive statistical analysis (such as mean, median, standard deviation and
percentage) has been carried out in the present study.
Results-In the present study of 50 study subjects comprised of 46 males and 4 females with
mean age of 70.5 years. In 38% of the patients, bacteria were determined to be the cause of
AECOPD. [ Klebsiella pneumoniae (52.63%), Escherichia coli ( 31.57%) and Streptococcus
pneumoniae (15.78%)]. Among viral etiology, parainfluenza(44.4%), influenza(27.8%) and
Respiratory syncytial virus(22.2%). Among Atypical organisms Mycoplasma, Chlamydiae and
Legionella accounted for 38.46%, 30.77% and 30.77% of the cases, respectively.
Present study indicates that gram-negative bacteria play a major role in exacerbation of COPD
in our population .Among bacterial infections, Klebsiella was most common organism.
Para influenza followed by influenza and RSV are common viral etiological agents in
Present study indicates that a good proportion of COPD exacerbations were caused by atypical
bacteria. Mycoplasma was the most commonly isolated organism followed by Chlamydia
pneumophila and Legionella species.

Clinical profile of COPD patients at a tertiary care hospital

Dr.Raghu BP, Dr.Raghavendra MK, Dr.Aravindh Ram VR,Dr.Deepak UG, Dr.Yunus Sheriff

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 1, Pages 478-481

COPD currently is considered the 11th leading cause of disability worldwide. Current projectionssuggest that by the year 2020, COPD will be the 5th leading cause of disability worldwide, behind only ischemic heart disease, major depression, traffic accidents, and cerebrovascular disease. The research students will attend ward rounds on a daily basis and collect cases which are under inclusion criteria. The patients will be randomly divided into intervention and control group. The intervention group of patients will be analysed. Majority of the patients came with complaints of dry cough, wheezing and breathlessness, and a very few patients had complained of fever. Most of the patients were admitted for exacerbation of COPD. It was observed that the patients with exacerbation of COPD were more in number in intervention group.

A study on clinical profile of patients with acute exacerbation of COPD

Dr. Ch Sandeep

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 1, Pages 942-945

In 2002 COPD was the fifth leading cause of death. Total deaths from COPD are projected to
increase by more than 30% in the next 10 years unless urgent action is taken to reduce the
underlying risk factors, especially tobacco use. Estimates show that COPD becomes in 2030
the third leading cause of death worldwide. Sputum cultureand sensitivity was done
collecting sputum in sterile containers and were incubated on sheep blood agar, chocolate
agar and Mac conkey agar. IgG antibodies against viruses and atypical organisms is done by
indirect immunofluorescent assay(IFA) kit.Sensitivityis 94.6% to 100%and specificity is 90%
to 100%based on micro-organism.Most of them have smoking history with 82% of Exsmokers
and 6% of smokers.Only 12% were non-smokers. Renal failure was seen in 42% of
patients. Chest x-ray showed opacities in only 24% of patients.

A study on sleep related breathing disorders among COPD patients

Dr.Basavaraj Sangolli, Dr.SSVB Murali Krishna, Dr.Manjunath M

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 1, Pages 1059-1064

COPD is a growing global epidemic and it is estimated to kill around 3 million people every
year. It is currently the 4th largest killer disease in the world and expected to climb to 3rd
position by the year 2030. WHO has estimated that 600 million people worldwide have
COPD. It affects around 5-10% of population over the age of 40 years but still there is wide
variations in the prevalence between countries. Patients underwent Spirometric analysis and
those with post bronchodilator FEV1 < 40% are asked for willingness to participate in the
study. Those who are willing to participate are screened for inclusion into the study. Informed
Consent was obtained from all the patients. GOLD criteria revealed that majority of the
patients in our study i.e.27(45%) were of Grade 1 followed by 22(36.7%) were from Grade 2,
10(16.7%) from Grade 3 and 1(1.7%) were of Grade 4.

The Effect of the Combination of Chest Physiotherapy and Active Cycle Breathing Technique on Respiratory Rate and Ability to Expend Sputum in Chronic Exacerbation Obstructive Lung Disease Patients at Haji Adam Malik Hospital Medan

RotuaElvina Pakpahan; Amira Permatasari Tarigan; NurAsnahSitohang .

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 616-623

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is the fourth leading cause of death in the world but is projected to be the third leading cause of death in 2020. This study aimed to examine the effect of combined chest physiotherapy and Active Cycle Breathing Technique (ACBT) on oxygen saturation and respiratory rate. The research method used was a quasiexperimental approach with pre -test and post-test control group design. The sampling technique used by the researcher was purposive sampling with 60 responde nts, divided into 30 intervention groups and 30 control groups. The results obtained were there were significant differences in the respiratory rate in the control group and the intervention group after being treated with a value of p=0.001 (p <0.05). The difference in the proportion of the ability to excrete sputum in the intervention group was 7 times more productive than the control group. It is hoped that nursing practice and nursing education will increase knowledge and skills in providing chest physiotherapy and ACBT so that they can apply these actions to patients who have sputum retention problems in the airway, especially COPD patients.


Maya Ardilla Siregar, Amira P. Tarigan, Yesi Ariani

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 4106-4111

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is a disease condition characterized by a progressive
and not reversible airflow previously associated with an abnormal inflammatory response in the
lungs to harmful substances. This can overcome the nursing problem in the form of gas transfer
problems. As a nurse, the thing that can be done is to do an independent intervention consisting of
orthopneic position and to try to improve breathing status based on the results of the classification
of nursing results, namely breathing frequency, oxygen saturation, and chest wall retraction. The
study aimed to investigate the combination of orthopneic position and breathing lips on the
respiratory status of COPD patients. The study was quantitative with the quasi-experimental
approach. Seventy-two were sample divide into two groups, namely, 36 control and 36 intervention
group using purposive sampling. Data were analyzed using Wilcoxon signed-rank test and Mann
Whitney Test. The results found significant differences between before and after the intervention
with values for respiratory frequency 0,001, oxygen saturation 0,001, and chest wall retraction
0,005, then found differences between the control group and comparison of respiratory frequencies
and oxygen saturation <0.005. The Intervention of combination orthopneic position and pursedlips
breathing can improve the respiratory status of COPD patients, namely: respiratory frequency,
oxygen saturation, and chest wall retraction.

“Effectiveness Of Structured Teaching Programme On Knowledge Regarding Adverse Effects Of Tobacco Usage Among B.Sc Nursing Students Of Sree Balaji College Of Nursing, Chrompet – Chennai”

Yerram Sai Rama Krishna Reddy

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 7, Pages 6075-6079

Smoking leads to disease and disability and harms nearly every organ of the body. Smoking causes cancer, heart disease, stroke, lung diseases, diabetes, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), which includes emphysema and chronic bronchitis. It increases risk for tuberculosis, certain eye diseases, and problems of the immune system, including rheumatoid arthritis. Secondhand smokers are also at great risk of developing certain disease conditions like stroke, lung cancer, and coronary heart disease in adults.

Acomparative analysis of neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients and healthy individuals

Dr. Dipti mohapatra; Dr. Manasi behera; Dr.tapaswini mishra

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 6, Pages 824-831

Background/aims: COPD is among the significant health complications in entire world; studies have shown that there is systemic inflammation with pulmonary inflammation in case of COPD. To detect the systemic inflammatory response, neutrophil lymphocyte ratio (NLR) in peripheral blood which is important biomarker. NLR hasn’t been studied in patients having chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Current study was targeted to determine the importance of NLR as inflammatory marker in patients with COPD.
Methods: The neutrophil and lymphocyte count in the peripheral blood was found out from blood count (CBC) reports. The NLR was determined by dividing neutrophil count from lymphocyte count. COPD patients were diagnosed with Spirometry. Then the NLR was compared in patients having stable COPD (n = 50), and healthy controls (n = 50.
Results: The neutrophil count was considerably greater in COPD patients matched with the healthy individuals (p < 0.001) whereas the lymphocyte count was suggestively lower in patients having COPD patients when compared to perfectly healthy individuals (p < 0.001).NLR values were considerably higher among patients with stable COPD patients than controls (p < 0.001). There were no noteworthy variance in the total leucocyte of COPD patients and healthy individuals.
Conclusion: It is concluded that the increase in the neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio in COPD patients compared to healthy individuals may be an indicator of systemic inflammation in patients with COPD.