Online ISSN: 2515-8260

Keywords : screening


Outcome of cervical cancer screening using Pap smear test on a target population

Dr. Shruti Bhavi Patil

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 2, Pages 122-126

Objective: To evaluate the use of Pap smear screening method for detection of precancerous
lesions.
Methods: Women working in police department and female family members of men working
in police department were screened for Ca cervix. A total of 67 women were recruited for the
study. A clinical examination per speculum and per vaginal examination were performed and
a history taken for all women. A pap smear was used for all women to see for cervical cancer.
The smear was obtained using Ayer’s spatula and spread over a marked glass slide which was
placed in 95% ethyl alcohol and sent to department of Pathology for cytopathological
examination. All data were recorded using a predesigned proforma.
Results: Most women were in age range of 30-50 years. The common complaint was white
discharge per vagina occurring in about 30% of individuals, abdominal pain was in 8.95% of
them, irregular menstrual cycle in 12.78% and 40.29% of them did not have any complaints.
Out of 67 ladies 61 (92.1%) pap smears were taken and 6 were not taken due to post
hysterectomy status or because they were menstruating. The test was negative for malignancy
in 68.6% of individuals and 11% of individuals had inflammatory smear due to infections
with trichomoniasis, bacterial vaginosis or candidiasis. Atypical cells were detected in 2.98%
women and they were advised colposcopy and guided biopsy. 5% of individuals had
unsatisfactory smear due to inadequate sample.
Conclusion: A Pap smear is simple, noninvasive, cost-effective, and easy to perform for
detection of precancerous lesions in a gynecological patient. Awareness about screening in
general population is needed. Women with an abnormal Pap test should undergo a
colposcopy and guided biopsy.

Subclinical Hypothyroidism in Pregnancy: A Review

Dr. Ritimukta Panda; Dr. Kavya Sudha; Dr. K.Jaya Sri; Dr. Rachita Sarangi; Dr. Bhagirathi Kar; Dr. Gangadhar Sahoo

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 6, Pages 1443-1446

Pregnancy-reference levels of Subclinic hypothyroidism (SCH), along with normal level of serum thyroxine, are called high thyroid stimulation hormone level (TSH).
Autoimmune Thyroiditis is also common in patients of subclinical hypothyroidism. Subclinical Hypothyroidism in pregnancy is the cause of some adverse obstetric consequences. Changes in the metabolism of thyroid hormones during pregnancy needs to be kept in mind, while diagnosing thyroid abnormalities. There is a jump in the obstetric and neonatal results, like preterm delivery, miscarriage, fetal growth restriction, preeclampsia, gestational diabetes mellitus, low birth weight, abruptio placentae and poor Apgar scores at birth. Treatment with Cevothyroxine therapy may help reduce some of these adverse effects, however there is restricted evidence to provision it. The behavior of subclinical hypothyroidism should target maternal TSH concentrations of less than 2.5mIU/L. However there is a lack of recommendation for the official starting dose of levothyroxine. So, individualised low doses of levothyroxine can be started and thereafter titred to the maintain the TSH in the target level