Online ISSN: 2515-8260

Keywords : Pneumonia

Study of Association of Tuberculosis with Severe Acute Malnutrition in Bihar

Satish Kumar, Sonu Kumar .

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2023, Volume 10, Issue 3, Pages 298-304

Background and Objectives: The term malnutrition refers to both undernutrition as well as overnutrition. Undernutrition is a condition in which there is inadequate consumption, poor absorption or excessive loss of nutrients. Overnutrition is caused by overindulgence or excessive intake of specific nutrients. By using WHO guideline, to identify the children with SAM from the patients admitted in department of Pediatrics, PMCH, Patna.
Method: This observational study will be carried out on admitted patients in upgraded department of Pediatrics, PMCH, Patna from January  2018 to November  2019.
Conclusion: Prevalence of Malnutrition is almost similar in both the sexes with slight male dominance. Most of the malnourished child are in the age group of 6 to 12 months, and mean age of presentation was 20 month.

A Study of Clinical, Radiological, and Functional Profile of Patients with Interstitial Lung Disease

Dr. Bandaru Sandeep Kumar, Dr. Kavitha M, Dr. K Praveen Kumar

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2023, Volume 10, Issue 3, Pages 646-654

Despite the rarity of these illnesses, some interstitial lung disease (ILDs) individuals may experience a progressive-fibrosing phenotype. A deterioration in lung function, increased respiratory symptoms, a limited response to immunomodulatory treatments, a reduction in quality of life, and perhaps an early death are all consequences of progressive fibrosis. We in the current study tried to evaluate theclinical, radiological, and functional profile of patients with interstitial lung diseases reporting to our tertiary care hospital.
Methods: Consecutive patients with the diagnosis of ILD as per guidelines with multidisciplinary modality were included in the study. A thorough medical history was obtained, followed by a comprehensive clinical examination.  A complete hemogram, blood sugar levels, renal function tests, arterial blood gas analysis with calculation of the alveolo-arterial (Aa) gradient, spirometry with measurement of the carbon monoxide diffusion capacity (DLCO), six-minute walk distance (6MWD), post-exercise desaturation, and radiological investigations like chest roentgenograms (CXR) and high-resolution computerized tomography (HRCT) thorax were reported.
Results: Average duration of symptoms in patients was 42.54 (6.1) months. End-inspiratory Velcro crackles were the most common examination finding in 138 (98.57%) followed by clubbing in 78 (55.7%). Post-exercise desaturation was found in n=26 patients (89.66%). The common diagnosis was idiopathic interstitial pneumonias (IIP) n=17(58.62%). Other common etiologies were granulomatous diseases like sarcoidosis in n=2(10.34%) hypersensitivity pneumonitis in n=2(6.89%) and connective tissue disease associated with ILD in n=5(17.24%). Rest n=3 cases included occupational ILD, drug-induced ILD, and topical pulmonary eosinophilia in one case each.
Conclusion: Interstitial Lung disease (ILD) is a chronic respiratory disease, and its diagnosis must be done with a multidisciplinary approach without the requirement of a lung biopsy. Interstitial pulmonary fibrosis has a poorer prognosis compared to Nonspecific interstitial pneumonia despite optimal treatment. Cases with connective tissue disease-associated ILD, hypersensitivity pneumonitis and sarcoidosis show exceptional response to therapy

Study of hyponatremia as a prognostic marker in lower respiratory tract infections in children

Mandira Sarkar, Pramila Ramawat, Vandana Varma, Shachi Jain Taran

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2023, Volume 10, Issue 3, Pages 1575-1581

Lower respiratory tract infection(LRTI) is a single largest cause of death in children worldwide. Hyponatremia is the most common electrolyte disturbance in admitted patients of LRTI. This study may help in prognostication of disease in terms of course, complication and possible outcome in these patients.
Objective: To estimate prevalence of hyponatremia in hospitalized patients of LRTI and to identify demographic, clinical and laboratory factors, complications and outcome associated with hyponatremia in patients with LRTI.
Materials and Methods: Children between 1 month to 18 years with LRTI admitted in department of pediatrics in a tertiary care centre in central India, as per inclusion and exclusion criteria were enrolled and their detailed clinical history, physical examination, routine investigations and serum sodium levels, complication, treatment were recorded.
Results: Out of 150 patients of LRTI admitted, hyponatremia was present in 43 cases (27%). Mild and moderate hyponatremia were present in 19.3% and 9.3% patients respectively. Hyponatremia was found to be more common in 1 to 5 years. Mean duration of hospital stay was longer in hyponatremic children. 69.8% of patients with hyponatremia on admission were found to have SIADH which was statistically significant. Mortality in patients with hyponatremia was 18.6%, which was significantly higher as compared to eunatremic patients where mortality was only 1.9%.
Conclusion: Hyponatremia is a common association among hospitalized children with LRTI. Serum sodium level at the time of admission can be used for timely identification and intervention of at risk LRTI patients and may help in reduction of morbidity and mortality

Risk Factors and Outcome of IMNCI classified severe and very severe pneumonia among under five children in tertiary care hospital

Arvind N Chavan, Saleem H Tambe, Supriya Kole, Inamdar Ismail ali F., Shital Rathod, Aakif Basma, Noorul Faisal .

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 8, Pages 3128-3136

Background: Pneumonia continues to be one of the leading causes of mortality among children under five years of age despite effective vaccines and nutritional and environmental interventions. This study designed to study the risk factors and outcome of IMNCI classified severe and very severe pneumonia in under five children.
Methods: Children between 2-60 months, fulfilling inclusion criteria were enrolled as cases. Baseline clinical assessment and physical examinations findings recorded. Lab and radiological investigations done. Reassessment done at 48 hrs for the cases of treatment failure.
Results: There were 75 out of 119 with incomplete immunization, 73 out of 83 with lack of exclusive breast feeding, 104 out of 185 with poor and 125 out of 136 malnourished develops very severe pneumonia. There was significant association between incomplete immunization, lack of exclusive breast feeding, lower socioeconomic status and malnutrition for risk of severe pneumonia (p=0.00). Consolidation (241) over X ray chest PA view was most common finding followed by interstitial infiltration (49) and pleural fluid/air (10).The most common complication observed was empyema followed by meningitis and septicemia and 12 out 136 having very severe pneumonia died, while 124 were successfully discharged and there was significant association between very severe pneumonia with outcome as death (p=0.0056) and 41 out 136 having very severe pneumonia were having treatment failure, while 95 were successfully treated for illness.
Conclusion: Early identification of these risk factors and anticipation of treatment failure may have therapeutic implication for starting more intensive therapy, thereby preventing complications and reducing childhood mortality and morbidity due to pneumonia.

Study of Vitamin D Status in Children Aged 1 Month to 5 Years Admitted With Pneumonia in a Tertiary Care Medical Center

Lakshmi Aparna Devi V V, Gopireddy Silpa, Rahul Teja G, Mahaboob Basha Kallur, Sridivya Uppatla

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 7, Pages 3741-3747

Background: To determine the impact of vitamin D status on the susceptibility and severity of pneumonia in children of age 1 month to 5 years.
Materials and Methods: This case control study was conducted from September 2020 to September2022 in children admitted to Pediatric Care Intensive Unit (PICU) Mamata Academy of Medical Sciences Hospital.Out of total 150 study participants, 75 children with new onset pneumonia were taken as cases and 75 healthy children who were matched for age and sex were taken as controls. All children with pneumonia were admitted and categorized  according to Revised WHO (2014) guidelines .Serum vitamin D levels were sent. As per recent Indian Academy of Pediatrics (IAP) recommendations, Serum Vitamin D levels < 12ng/dl were taken as deficient levels, 12-20ng/dl as insufficient levels and > 20ng/dl as sufficiency level1.
Results: Our study showed a correlation between hypovitaminosis D and pneumonia. We found that hypovitaminosis D was significantly associated with pneumonia compared to healthy controls and we also found that all cases with severe pneumonia had significantly lower vitamin D levels than healthy controls.
Conclusions: In our study, we conclude children with lower vitamin D levels are at increased risk for acquiring pneumonia and also are at increased risk of developing severe pneumonia. We conclude to consider vitamin D supplementation in children younger than 5 years to reduce the risk of acquiring pneumonia, although larger RCTs are required to support this

“Socio-demographic profile and treatment Outcome of Covid-19 Patients attending Covid Hospitals of Datia, M.P. INDIA’’

Adhikari P., Kumar Sanjeev, Swami Piyush, Gupta Shubhanshu, Tiwari R

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 4, Pages 3107-3115

Background- In December 2019, a series of pneumonia cases were identified with presumptive viral origin in Wuhan, China, the virus was initially designated as the novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV), later WHO renamed as Corona Virus Disease 2019 (COVID-19).
Objective- To describe the sociodemographic profile & Treatment Outcome of Covid -19 Patients attending Covid Hospitals of Datia district of M.P.
Methods -it was descriptive, cross sectional observational study conducted among COVID-19 positive cases admitted & managed at Covid hospitals (DCH & DCHC) affiliated to Government Medical College Datia ,M.P. from 1st April 2020 to 15th December 2020. Data was collected regarding age ,sex, Occupation, Residence and Treatment Outcome of Covid 19 patients and analysed accordingly with the help of EpiInfo software.
Results- The mean age of the patients was found 37.69±16.74 years. 65.7% of patients were belonged to a middle age group & male sex. Only 23.14% belongs to peripheral area& remaining were of urban area. Out of total 1620 positive patients, 78.76% patients were admitted & remaining were advised for home isolation. 92.47% had been discharged &cured ,only 1.72 % patients were up referred and only 0.39 % death had been occurred among of all admitted patients.
Conclusion- As only 1.72 % patients were up referred and 0.39 % death had been occurred among of all admitted patients which shows a good quality care of covid patients and may be also be due to mainly middle aged patients were found infected with covid -19 without any more significant co morbid conditions.


Oruganti Lalitha, G. Madhavi Prasanna, Shyamala Gowri Pocha

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 4, Pages 2031-2038

Background: One of the prime global health problem in children is pneumonia accounting for 29% of mortality worldwide. One of the important micronutrient in humans which plays vital role in stimulation and proper functioning of immune system and prevents infections is zinc. There is a strong correlation between risk of pneumonia in a population with zinc deficiency with high rates of infections such as diarrhea, skin, and respiratory infections. The prime objective of present study is to provide further experimental support to strengthen above correlation. To study the serum zinc levels in children hospitalised with pneumonia and correlation between serum zinc levels and severity of pneumonia and its complications.
Materials and Methods: This observational cross sectional study included 100 subjects (100 with pneumonia and 100 without pneumonia) aged between <12 months to 5 years of age diagnosed with various levels of pneumonia. A detailed history, clinical examination, chest X-ray findings, arterial oxygen saturation (SpO2), haemoglobin (g/dl), WBC count and serum zinc levels (µg/dl) was noted.
Results: Mean serum zinc levels in cases was significantly low compared to age and sex matched controls (p value-0.001). Low serum zinc levels were associated with increasing severity of pneumonia (Pneumonia-112.21µg/dl, severe pneumonia- 41.18µg/dl, very severe pneumonia- 28.38µg/dl). Mean serum zinc levels in complicated pneumonia and death cases was very low 22.28µg/dl compared to those with no complications 189.94µg/dl and who were discharged 197.67µg/dl. Low serum zinc levels were associated with prolonged hospital stay and prime cause of death in children.
Conclusion: Our study results conclude that there is a contrary relation between serum zinc and different stages of pneumonial agony than in matched healthy controls. Prognosis could be augmentation of zinc in hospitalized children with acute lower respiratory infection.

A Prospective Study on Etiopathogenesis of Various Pneumococcal Serotypes in Invasive Respiratory Tract Infections in a Tertiary Care Centre in Western Uttar Pradesh

Sandhya Lata, Jayesh Shakeet, Abhilasha Smith

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 3, Pages 10514-10522

Background: Acute respiratory tract infections are a major cause of under-five
childhood morbidity and mortality across the world. Knowledge of pathogenicity and
invasiveness of serotypes can help in predicting the course of disease and will permit
necessary interventions to be taken in time. This will result in better opportunities of
care and significant decrease in morbidity and mortality associated with pneumococcus.
The aim of this study to identify the various pneumococcal serotypes affecting children
as pneumococcal invasive disease and to study the clinical presentation, invasiveness
and the morbidity and mortality caused by them.
Materials & Methods: It was a hospital based prospective analytical study done at K.D.
Medical College, Mathura. All patients within the age group of six months to eighteen
years were enrolled in the study. All patients admitted with community acquired
pneumonia were screened for evidence of sepsis with the help of routine investigations
and acute phase reactants (CRP and Procalcitonin). Clinical profile was studied, and an
attempt was made for identification of causative organism by means of Blood culture
and DNA PCR.
Results: Out of 716 cases admitted with LRTI, 316 were considered to be bacterial in
origin based on clinical presentation, X-Ray findings (classical
Consolidation/Empyema), Neutrophilic Leukocytosis, raised Acute Phase Reactants
(CRP/PCT) or Blood Culture positivity. Causative organism was identified on basis of
blood culture in 28.4% cases. Pneumococcal infection was documented by blood culture
in 0.69 % cases while evidence of invasive pneumococcal disease in form of
identification of serotype was obtained in 30% cases. 21 different pneumococcal
serotypes were identified. Serotype 1 was most common isolate. Other common isolates
were serotype 14, 6B, 7F, 9B, 19F, 9N, 18C, 19A, 20, 10F and 5. Serotypes 18C and 19A
were associated with maximum mortality. Serotype 14 was another most virulent

Spectrum of Chest HRCT findings in covid-19 pneumonia

Dr. Ashok Kumar Kattimani, Dr. Shivaraj G Biradar, Dr. Neeraja Akki

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 2, Pages 251-257

Introduction: The pandemic disease COVID-19 has varied presentations clinically and even
radiologically. Early diagnosis and treatment help in containment of the disease. Therefore, assessing
the radiological patterns in order to contribute to the diagnosis COVID-19 is the aim of this study.
Materials and method: A cross-sectional descriptive study from January 2021 to June 2021 was
carried out on 165 patients suspected of COVID-19 with delayed RT-PCR report or in cases with initial
RT-PCR negative, but having high clinical of suspicion of COVID-19. HRCT pattern in such cases
were documented and correlated with the repeat RTPCR and other laboratory parameters such as
Interleukin IL-6, serum ferritin, C-reactive protein, Lactate Dehydrogenase.
Results: Most common HRCT pattern was bilateral multifocal peripheral ground glass opacities
predominantly involving posterior segments. Other common patterns were crazy paving and
Conclusion: Specific patterns on the HRCT can be used in diagnosis of COVID-19 when there is high
clinical likelihood, however the study should be used judiciously only when indicated.

A study to assess the level of Vitamin D status and its association with the severity of the pneumonia

Syed Shah Sarmast, Rajendra Shinde, Priyanka More, SK Satpathy

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 2, Pages 822-827

Background: The effects of Vitamin D on bone metabolism and calcium homeostasis have
already been well recognized. Emerging evidence has implicated Vitamin D as a critical
regulator of immunity, playing a role in both the innate and cell-mediated immune systems.
Emerging evidence has implicated Vitamin D as a critical regulator of immunity, playing a
role in both the innate and cell-mediated immune systems. Vitamin D deficiency has been
found to be associated with several immune-mediated diseases, susceptibility to infection and
cancer. Further elucidation of the role of Vitamin D in lung development and immune system
function may hold profound implications for the prevention and treatment of asthma.
Objective: To study the Vitamin D Status of children having severe pneumonia and to know
if there is any relation between Vitamin D levels and severe pneumonia.
Methodology: The present prospective study was conducted by the department of Pediatrics
at SCBMCH & SVVPGIP, Cuttack from October 2013 to October 2015 among the children
with the age group of 1 to 5 years of age who were admitted in the department with
complains of Pneumonia. A total of 80 children who were having severe and very severe
pneumonia diagnosed based on WHO ARI (acute respiratory tract infection) criteria admitted
to the SCBMCH & SVVPGIP (General, Pay ward & PICU) in the age group of 1 to 5 years.
Results: In this study, we found that 50% of the children among cases had vitamin D levels
in the deficiency range while 41.3% and in the insufficiency group while we had 8.8% of the
children in the sufficiency group as compared to the healthy controls 20(71.4%) among 28
belongs to sufficient age group, 5(17.9%) to insufficient group and 3(10.7%) to the deficient
group. One significant finding in this study was that out of the 27 children in the sufficiency
group none of them were there in the very severe pneumonia group which suggests as the
Vitamin D levels Increases the severity of the condition decreases.
Conclusion: In this study, we found that Vitamin D levels were related to severity of the
disease as there were no children in the sufficiency group having very severe pneumonia.
Hence we can say as the levels of Vitamin D falls the severity of pneumonia Increases.


Dr Rakesh Gujjar, Dr Hemant Kumar, Dr Himani Mavi, Dr Neha Bidhuri

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 3, Pages 11430-11435

Background: Chest diagnostic imaging has a primary relevance in the diagnosis and severity assessment of COVID-19 together with clinical manifestations. The present study was conducted to assess HRCT chest to screen symptomatic primary contacts of COVID-19.
Materials & Methods: 48symptomatic primary contacts ofCOVID 19 patientsof both genders were enrolled. All underwent both chest CT imaging and laboratory virus nucleic acid test (RT-PCR assay with Nasopharyngeal swab samples).
Results: Out of 48 patients, males were 28 and females were 20. Breathlessness was present in 12, cough in 32, fever in 26, diarrhoea in 7, sore throat in 13, bronchial asthma in 8 and diabetes in 4 cases. The difference was significant (P< 0.05). The time interval between chest CT scan and RT PCR assay was 2.1 days. Results of RT PCR assay was positive        in 30 days and negative in 18 days. Chest CT showed consistent with viral pneumonia (positive) in 40 cases and no CT findings of viral pneumonia in 8 cases. It showed consolidation in 12, ground glass opacityin 24 and reticulation/thickened interlobular septa in 4 cases. The difference was significant (P< 0.05).
Conclusion: Chest CT should be considered for the COVID-19 screening, symptomatic primary contacts of COVID 19 in epidemic areas particularly where access to RT PCR testing is difficult.


Madepelly Aditya

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 3, Pages 11754-11760

Background: Pneumonia is a global health problem and important causes of deaths under five years of age accounting for 17% worldwide. Zinc is an important micronutrient in humans and stimulates immune responses and prevents infections. There is a higher pneumonia risk in a population with zinc deficiency with high rates of infections such as diarrhea, skin, and respiratory infections. The aim of our study is to compare the level of serum zinc in children with pneumonia with age, sex, and nutritional matched healthy controls.Objectives: To studySerum zinc levels in children hospitalised with pneumonia, Correlation between serum zinc levels and severity of pneumonia and its complications.
Materials and Methods: This cross sectional study included 90 subjects (90 with pneumonia and 90 without pneumonia) aged between 3 months to 5 years diagnosed with various levels of pneumonia and 90 age and sex matched controls. A detailed history, clinical examination, chest X-ray findings, arterial oxygen saturation(SpO2), haemoglobin (g/dl), WBC count and serum zinc levels (µg/dl) was noted.
Results: Mean serum zinc levels in cases was significantly low compared to age and sex matched controls (p value-0.001). Low serum zinc levels were associated with increasing severity of pneumonia (Pneumonia-120.21µg/dl, severe pneumonia- 59.57µg/dl, very severe pneumonia- 36.19µg/dl). Mean serum zinc levels in complicated pneumonia and death cases was very low 35.28µg/dl compared to those with no complications 109.27µg/dl and who were discharged 141.1µg/dl. Low serum zinc levels were associated with prolonged hospital stay in children.
Conclusion: The final conclusion of the present study indicates there is an inverse relation was established between serum zinc level in children and various degrees of pneumonial respiratory distress than in matched healthy controls. There could be an improvement with zinc supplementation in hospitalized children with ALRI.

Fetomaternal outcome of pregnancy with COVID-19

Dr. ChhaviBhomia,Dr. Neelima Shah, Dr. Prashant Shah, Dr. Vasudha Sawant

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 1, Pages 695-700

Objective: To study the Feto maternal outcome of Covid-19 in Pregnancy.
Methodology: This is a retrospective study done on 53 pregnant patients who tested positive
for SARS-CoV-2 and were delivered in D. Y. Patil Hospital, Kolhapur from April 2020 to
July 2020. Maternal and fetal characteristics and the outcome of Covid-19 infection in
pregnancy was studied.
Results: Among the 53 patients, 49 patients (92%) were asymptomatic. Remaining presented
with fever, sore throat, cough. 69% were primigravida and 30% were multigravida. 66%
underwent LSCS while 28% were delivered normally. In majority, LSCS was done for
oligohydramnios and fetal distress. All the patients were discharged after negative swab
report and no maternal death was reported. About 32% of neonates required NICU admission
for hyperbilirubinemia, pneumonia and sepsis. There was no neonatal death and none of the
neonates turned out to be positive for covid-19.
Conclusion: The severity of SARS-CoV-2 was seen to be mild to moderate in pregnant
women. Majority of the women infected with coronavirus disease were asymptomatic. The
risk of vertical transmission to the neonate was also found to be low. Oligohydramnios and
fetal distress were commonly seen in the patients, pointing towards the lack of antenatal
follow up visits due to restricted mobility in the covid era.


IlxamdjanKarimdjanov Asamovich,Nozima Sаdiqova Baxadirovna, BotirTadjiev Mirkhashimovich,NurlanDinmukhammadiev Aktamovich, BobirMirkhashimovBotirovich,YaxyayevaKomola Zokirovna,AnvarTursunbayev Karimberdiyevich,FatimaXoltayeva Fayziyevna

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 1341-1351

The role of vitamin C in the prevention and treatment of pneumonia andsepsis has been investigated for past decades. This reviewaimsto translatethese findings into patients with severe coronavirus disease (COVID-19). It has indicatedthat patients with pneumonia and sepsis have low vitamin C status and elevated oxidative stress.Additional oral or intravenous (IV) vitamin C administered patients with pneumonia can mitigate the severity and course ofthe disease. Severely ill patients with sepsis need for intravenous administration of amounts counted in grams ofthe vitamin to achieve adequate plasma levels, an intervention that some studies suggest reduces mortality.The vitamin has physiological functions like pleiotropic, many of which are closely connected to COVID-19.These are its antioxidant, antiinflammatory, antithrombotic and immunomodulatory functions.Previous observational studies found out low vitamin C status in critically ill patients with COVID-19.A number of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) conductedworldwideevaluate intravenous vitamin C as monotherapy in patients with COVID-19. Optimization of the intervention protocolsin future trials, e.g., earlier and continuously administration, is justified to potentially improve itsefficacy. In order to the excellent safety profile, low cost, and potential for rapid enlargement of production,administration of vitamin C to patients, especially with hypovitaminosis C and severe respiratory infections,e.g., COVID-19, appears warranted. In addition, there are few new ways of concurrent using vitamin C and other manipulations or medications.

Modern Approaches To The Selection Of Protected Cephalosporins Iii For Therapy Of Community-Acquired Pneumonia In Children

Mukhlisakhon Ravshanhanovna Kurbanova; Furkat Mukhitdinovach Shamsiev; Rano Anvarbekovna Musajavova

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 3, Pages 3008-3014

The aim of the study was to study the effectiveness of the use of protected cephalosporin III generation Extum in the treatment of community-acquired pneumonia in children. The study included 100 children with community-acquired pneumonia at the age from 1 to 15 years, who were observed and treated in the department of pulmonology. In the process of complex clinical and laboratory examination of children, biochemical, microbiological and immunological research methods were used. Microbiological studies have shown that in children with community-acquired pneumonia, S. Pneumonia occupies a significant place in the etiological structure and accounts for 42.0% of cases, a high sensitivity of pneumococcus to injectable cephalosporin of the third generation has been established. When included in complex treatment, protected cephalosporin of the third generation Extum leads to a decrease in the frequency of repeated acute respiratory infections and their complications by 2.2 times, the frequency of recurrent bronchitis and pneumonia by 1.7 times, which indicates a high therapeutic effectiveness of the proposed treatment

A Review Study On Relationship Among Covid-19 And Pneumonia

Dr.Akila K; Dr.Senthil Nathan

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 7, Pages 5476-5480

First declared as a coronavirus disease by the World Health Organisation (WHO) in March 2020 (COVID-19), the number of Positive and death cases continues to rise even seven months after that. Seven months later. This global pandemic has had a huge effect on the world's health, social and economic facets. Therefore, it is necessary to recognise the risk factors that lead to the production of serious infections for risk stratification, to improve the re-allocation of hospital resources and to direct guidelines and strategies on public health. A variety of co-morbidity consequences such as hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidemia, anaemia, coronary, thyroid disease, and pulmonary disease have been shown to be correlated with serious COVID-19 findings 1. Persons with dementia are the most fragile in normal times as they rely on others for their daily life. In a recent review, dementia has been found to increase the risk of morbidity and death, including incidence of respiratory illness, of hospitalising patients. Unfortunately, until now, no research has shown specifically how dementia is linked to COVID-19. This paper seeks to investigate the theoretically related implications of COVID-19 infection with dementia.

Out-Of-Social Pneumonia On The Background Of Chronic Kidney Disease

Lola T. Daminova; Nodirjon Z. Asadov; Davron K. Muminov

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 3, Pages 3493-3504

Objective: to investigate the characteristics of the clinical course of community-acquired pneumonia in patients with constant kidney infection. The ponder included 120 patients with pneumonia: 40 patients had no history of renal pathology (group M), 80 patients endured from inveterate kidney infection (GFR for 3 months some time recently the improvement of pneumonia 30-60 ml / min / 1.7 m2, group M + CKD ). Confirmation of the determination was carried out on the premise of chest X-ray, the detailing of the conclusion included deciding the sort of pneumonia - croupous or central intersecting.
In a comparative evaluation of the X-ray picture within the explored groups, it was famous that in patients with pneumonia against the foundation of CKD, lobar and central intersecting pneumonia with a huge penetrate volume were altogether more frequent (p <0.001). Within the flow of follow-up, the larger part of patients (78 out of 120 patients, 65%) appeared positive clinical and radiological elements, 20 patients (16.67%) appeared no critical elements, and 22 patients (18.33%) had clinical and radiological elements. negative. Negative clinical and radiological flow was more frequently watched within the group of patients in whom pneumonia developed against the background of CKD (p <0.01).

State Of The System In Patients With Hospital Respiratory Disorder Within The Background Of Chronic Nephrosis

Botir T. Daminov; Lola T. Daminova; Nodirjon Z. Asadov; Davron K. Muminov

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 3, Pages 3482-3492

Purpose of the study: to check some indicators of the immunohemogram in patients with community acquired respiratory disorder on the background of CKD.
Materials and methods. one hundred twenty patients with community-acquired respiratory disorder were examined: forty patients with respiratory disorder (group Pn) and eighty respiratory disorder, that developed against the background of chronic nephrosis (group Pn+ CKD). The management cluster (CG) consisted of twenty healthy individuals. The study found that the amount of leukocytes was exaggerated within the Mon + CKD cluster by 162.24% than in the CG (p <0.001), within the Mon cluster 263.14% on top of within the CG and twenty seven.79% than within the cluster Mon + CKD (p <0.001). In patients with Mon, the quantitative relation of the amount of neutrophils to lymphocytes significantly exaggerated (p <0.001 compared with the CG and also the Mon + CKD group), reflective the shift of the formula to the left, and within the Mon + CKD cluster this quantitative relation remained unchanged, despite the increase within the absolute variety of leukocytes. In patients with respiratory disorder with background CKD, a marked increase in T-lymphocytes was determined because of a population of CD8 and CD95 cells (p <0.001 compared with CG and also the Mon group). a rise in IgM concentration prevailed within the pneumonia cluster, and a rise in immune serum globulin prevailed within the PN + CKD cluster (p <0.001).
Conclusion. Respiratory disorder related to CKD is related to associate active general inflammatory response involving non-specific immunity and also the depletion of its cellular part, as well as activation of immunity because of chronic inflammation and chronic matter stimulation.

Epidemiological study of COVID-19 pneumonia in pregnant woman and their neonates; report of thirteen confirmed COVID-19 pregnant women

Alireza Kamali; Behnam Mahmodiyeh; Amir Almasi-Hashiani; Morteza Mousavi Hasanzadeh; Maryam Shokrpour

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 4455-4461

Background: In new pandemic, the probable effects of COVID-19 pneumonia on pregnant woman and their infant is one of new critical challenge for health care. Here we presented clinical symptoms, laboratory findings and outcome of COVID-19 pneumonia in pregnant woman. Methods: In a case series study, from 15 Feb to 15 June 2020, all women with RT-PCR COVID-19 who referred to two hospitals (Taleghani and Qods Hospital) affiliated to Arak University of Medical Sciences were selected. The epidemiological and demographic variables, laboratory test and outcomes obtained from patient’s medical records. Results: In this case series, we presented thirteen confirmed COVID-19 pregnant women. Their mean age was 34.6 (S.D.: 5.9) years and the mean gestational age was 32.4 (S.D.: 7.3) weeks. Most of patient didn’t show any maternal complication and intrauterine vertical transmission. The large number of pregnant women had normal HRCT and also in terms of laboratory most of the patients had normal laboratory tests. Amniotic fluids, cord blood, the throat swab of neonate in our pregnant woman with delivery were tested for COVID-19 and all of them were negative. Conclusion: The COVID-19 mothers and their infant didn’t have higher risk for morbidity and mortality and this virus didn’t associate with intrauterine vertical transmission.