Online ISSN: 2515-8260

Keywords : endothelial dysfunction


STUDY OF SIALIC ACID AND NITRIC OXIDE IN TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS WITH AND WITHOUT DIABETICNEPHROPATHY

A. Jyotsna, T. Aruna Kumari, G. Anil Kumar

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 4, Pages 1466-1478

Background:In diabetes, acute phase reactants are taken into consideration to be diagnostic indications of both microvascular angiopathy and cardiovascular mortality. The chemical sialic acid is an example of one of these acute phase reactants. A deficiency in the amount of bioavailable nitric oxide has been hypothesised to be responsible for the endothelial dysfunction that is commonly linked with diabetes. It has been demonstrated that the vasodilatation that is dependent on NO plays a crucial role in the regulation and maintenance of vascular tone in renal microcirculation.Objectives:1.To evaluate and compare concentrations of serum sialic acid, nitric oxide, glycated haemoglobin, serum lipid profile (TC, TG, LDL, HDL), Urinary Albumin Creatinine Ratio (UACR) in diabetic patients with and without nephropathy and healthy controls.2.To correlate serum sialic acid with glycated haemoglobin, lipid profile, and UACR in diabetics with and without nephropathy.3.To correlate serum nitric oxide with glycated haemoglobin, lipid profile, UACR in diabetics with and without nephropathy.
Materials and Methods: 80 subjects participated. 40 healthy individuals and 80 diabetics were studied. Diabetes with nephropathy and diabetes without nephropathy were each 40 cases. Serum sialic acid was quantified by Ehrlich's reagent, serum nitric oxide by Kinetic cadmium reduction, serum glycated haemoglobin and urine microalbumin by immunoturbidimetric, urinary creatinine by modified Jaffee's method, and TC, TG, HDL by enzymatic methods. Friedewald's formula found LDL.
Results: Age of controls was 51.0 6.8 years, diabetic cases were 53.0 7.5 years, and diabetic nephropathy was 52.5 7.5 years. In the 40 controls, 22 were male and 18 were female. 19 of the 40 diabetic patients were male and 21 were female. 19 of the 40 diabetic nephropathy patients were male and 21 were female. There was no significant difference between the sex distribution of controls and cases (p>0.05). The mean concentrations of all the parameters except serum nitric oxide and HDL were significantly increased in cases when compared with healthy controls. Sialic acid showed a positive correlation with glycated haemoglobin, lipid profile, and UACR. HDL showed a negative correlation. Nitric oxide showed a negative correlation with glycated haemoglobin, lipid profile, UACR. HDL showed a positive correlation.
Conclusion: Serum sialic acid and nitric oxide are indicators of diabetes and diabetic nephropathy, according to the study. Dyslipidemia and glycemic control are affected. Early measurement of sialic acid and nitric oxide helps reduce diabetes complications.

A Study on Serum Myeloperoxidase, Apolipoprotein B and Glycated Hemoglobin Levels in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

Ratna Rajesh Gogulamudi, Laxmi Narayana Sripuram, Sreevani Namani

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 3, Pages 864-870

Background: Diabetes mellitus is a clinical syndrome characterized by hyperglycemia
due to absolute or relative deficiency of insulin. Type 2 diabetes (T2D) occurs due to a
progressive decline in the ability of the pancreas to secrete enough insulin as well as
insulin resistance in insulin target tissues. The pathophysiology of T2D is characterized
by excessive accumulation of ectopic fat in the liver, pancreas, and skeletal muscles,
eventually manifesting as insulin resistance in these tissues and pancreatic beta cell
dysfunction that ultimately leads to hyperglycemia.Metabolic abnormalities such as
dyslipidemia, hyperinsulinemia, or insulin resistanceand obesity play key roles in the
induction and progression of type 2 diabetesmellitus (T2DM). Objectives: To estimate
the levels of serum myeloperoxidase, apolipoprotein B and glycated hemoglobin in type
2 diabetic patients and also in healthy controls, to observe the relationship between
serum MPO with apo B and glycated hemoglobin and also between glycated
haemoglobin with apo B in type 2 diabetic patients and healthy controls.
Materials and Methods: Case control study was done taking 30 cases of type 2 diabetes
mellitus and 30 age and sex matched healthy controls. In all the subjects, concentrations
of HbA1c, serum apo B and serum MPO were estimated. HbA1c was measured by
turbidimetric method and serum Apo B by immune turbidimetric method using semi
auto analyser CHEM 5 Plus. Serum MPO was measured by ELISA method using
ELISA reader.

Pantoprazole Rescue The Vascular Endothelial Dysfunction In Diabetic Rats Through DDAH/ADMA/Enos/NO Pathway

Gaurav Taneja; Satyendra K. Rajput

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 10, Pages 224-238

Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are the commonly recommended treatment for gastric abnormalities. The structural scaffold of PPIs (Pantoprazole; PPZ) provides an incalculable chance of association with diverse biological receptors which indicate a huge possibility of pleiotropic therapeutic impact which needs to be explored. Recently, several studies report the cardioprotective events of PPIs, but the underlying mechanism is not clear. Four groups having six animals in each were considered for this study. STZ (50 mg/kg/i.p) was given to induced chronic diabetes mellitus (DM) and vascular endothelial dysfunction (VED). PPZ (4 mg/kg/p.o/daily for 8 weeks) was evaluated against DM induced VED by measuring endothelial relaxation, aortic/serum nitrite/nitrate concentration, asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA), aortic superoxide anion generation, serum thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and dimethylarginine dimethylaminohydrolase (DDAH) in the cell lysate of each animals group. PPZ significantly overcome the perturbed level of hyperglycemia measured by blood glucose level, increase the availability of NO measured by aortic/serum nitrite/nitrate concentration. Treatment with PPZ showed the determinate lessening of tissue injuries as it averted increase expression of VED measured by ACh-induced endothelium-dependent relaxation, and diminution in oxidative stress, plasma ADMA level, and DDAH concentration in the cell lysate. The vascular protective potential of PPZ has a strong correlation with the DDAH/ADMA/eNOS/NO signaling pathway. Furthermore, the study also explored the antioxidant activity of PPZ which may also facilitate this protective pathway by increasing the bioavailability of NO in the endothelium.