Online ISSN: 2515-8260

Keywords : Melanin

Reaction Diffusion Model in Understanding the Chemical Nature of Animal Pigmentations

Lalitha Pattabiraman, Madhumitha Mohan

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 7, Pages 9387-9394

The Animal Coats are unique for each species in the sense that they differ in texture, colour, pattern etc. Major factors such as habitat, lifestyle, camouflaging etc. influence the formation of the animal coat. Melanin is the major pigment in the body of the organism responsible for the pigmentation on surface of the skin and other appendages. Melanin is produced by specialised cells in the basal layer of the epidermis called ‘Melanocytes’ whose distribution determines the pattern and overall colour concentration of the pigmentation. The distribution of Melanocytes is specific in each organism determined by chemical signals called ‘Morphogens.’ A number of authors have put forth theories regarding Melanogenesis and its subsequent distribution to form patterns. Turing and Murray have been considered the pioneer in the work of using differentiation to form a reaction diffusion model to explain the movement of melanocytes and the melanin pigment through a concentration gradient by Morphogens. According to them, body surface area and its uniformity throughout the organism plays an important role in dispersion of Melanocytes. Various patterns like strips, spots, colour variations and other criteria can be explained on the basis of such mathematical theorems and models. In this article, we have made an attempt to study a biological concept that is animal coat pattern formation, in a mathematical way. Ordinary differential equations and Partial differential equations are being used for determining the colours and patterns occurring in Animal coats. 

Management of Melanin-associated pigmented lesion using diode laser, scalpel and electro-surgery: A comparative study

Dr Mouneshkumar C D; Dr Shipra Sepolia; Dr Shivangi Gupta

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 10, Pages 320-330

Background: Melanin is the pigment that is responsible for the hyperpigmentation of skin and gingival tissues. This can result in significant amount of esthetic dilemma and affect the smile line which forms integral part of oro-facial esthetics. Numerous cosmetic modalities have been used for correction of hyperpigmentation. However, repigmentation can be seen few months following surgery. Aim: The aim of this study was to compare three techniques of scalpel, electrosurgery and diode laser therapy for management of gingival hyperpigmentation for repigmentation and comparing pain intensity using the visual analogue scale (VAS). Materials and methods: Thirty subjects with gingival pigmentation were categorized into Group 1: Depigmentation performed using Scalpel surgery method; Group II: Depigmentation by using electro-surgical method and Group III: Depigmentation procedure using Laser therapy. Results: Treated subjects were observed at baseline, at first month and six months post-operative period for repigmentation occurrence and intensity of pain score immediately following surgery and after twenty four hours. All observations were entered in Microsoft Excel 2007 work sheet. Mean and standard deviations were calculated and inter-group comparisons were made using Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) tool. A p value of <0.05 was considered statistically significant. All methods demonstrated lack of repigmentation after six months follow-up and almost similar VAS score significance (P<0.05 for electrosurgical and laser technique and >0.05 for scalpel technique. Conclusion: Since comparable results were demonstrated in this study, it is choice of clinician and patient selection based on which appropriate technique can be selected.