Keywords : forest ecosystem
European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine,
2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 3812-3823
A significant part of the ecosystem (biome) and natural landscape diversity of the Earth's temperate belt is represented in the Russian Federation. It is preserved due to the relatively low disturbance of the country's territory (up to 65% of the country's area, mainly in the Arctic, Siberia and the Far East, maintain a natural mode of functioning). The share of arable land in biomes reaches 40-50% in the forest-steppe and steppe, and in general, agricultural lands occupy in the biomes of the Russian Federation from 0% (tundra) to 85% (steppes).
The landscape diversity of the Russian Federation itself includes about 20 types of landscapes (arctic, subarctic, boreal (taiga), subboreal humid, semiarid and arid, subtropical, mountainous - alpine, glacial, etc. Swamp, floodplain, aquatic, shallow marine, etc.) and more than 350 types of landscapes. Among them, taiga (boreal) landscapes are leading in terms of area - 52%. Cold arctic and subarctic (plain and mountainous) occupy 21%. Mountain landscapes occupy 30–33%. The most developed, optimal for the development of agriculture, the territory of the forest-steppe and broad-leaved forests occupy 8%. The Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) links the concept of "biodiversity" and "sustainable development".
It follows from the preamble of the Convention that biodiversity must be conserved not only for its own sake, but also for the use and enhancement of human well-being.
This has given rise to the concept of ecosystem goods and services that biodiversity provides and that can be critical to the needs for foodstuffs, health and healthy environmental needs.
In the National Strategy for the Conservation of Biodiversity of the Russian Federation, the main groups of life-supporting functions of biological diversity have been identified: production functions, environment-forming functions, informational and spiritual-aesthetic functions.