Online ISSN: 2515-8260

Current Issue
Volume 8, Issue 4

Volume 8, Issue 4, Summer 2021

Synthesis and Characterization of Mn-Zn soft ferrite nanoparticle of Gd3+ doped

Indu Sharma, Pankaj Kumar

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 4, Pages 1-9

Manganese-Zinc Ferrite is a very high permeability magnetic material. The permeability is
depended on the amount of manganese and zinc used in the synthesis of ferrite
material.Reagent graded raw materials were used as initial material to synthesize and get a
characterization of Mn-Zn based spinel ferrite. The nanocrystalline powders of manganese
ferrite were obtained by the process of citrate precursor method. The obtained nanocrystals
of Mn-Zn were doped by Gadolinium which further it was employed to produce specimens
of Mn0.5Zn0.5GdxFe2-xO4 (x = 0, 0.01, 0.03). The study of doped (Gd) Mn-Zn ferrite
nanocrystals was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron
microscopy (SEM). The results of XRD data determine the average crystallite size of doped
(GD) Mn-Zn nanocrystals in the range of 40nm to 45nm. The images obtained through
FE-SEM shows the flake-like structure of doped (Gd) Mn-Zn ferrite nanocrystals. Further
studies of doped (Gd) Mn-Zn ferrite were done by FTIR and Raman spectroscopy.


Miss. Komal T. Jangid, Miss. Santoshi R. Sharma, Miss. Vrushali P. Chaudhari, Miss. Samruddhi K. Joshi, Miss. Harsha V.Nikhade, Prof. A.V. Mahalle

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 4, Pages 10-16

Online Banking Services are accessible to all the customer who have their valid user and id allocated by
the bank. The System provides the different facilities like Balance enquiry, Funds transfer to another
account in same or different bank, Request for cheque book, change in address, stop payment of cheques,
viewing monthly and annual statements. Online Banking System has attractred the attentions of banks,
securities, insurance companies in developing nations sice the 1990s and the rapid and significant growth
in electronic sectors and commerce.
The main motive of the online banking system is is to provide customer with alternative that is more
responsive and less expensive also time saving.
Online banking system is the most important financial activity which is now a days mostly carried out by
any person who has an account in the bank. Not only unique id and password is allocated with that an
new UPI code system is added as a security the bank.If a wrong password is given thrice in the session,
that account gets locked and the customer is not able to use their account and an warning is pop up that
the account is locked and the same locking system goes with UPI code.
Whenever we deal with the Online banking system services the main concern of the customer is always
related to the security regarding to the banking transaction and account login activities.
The E-Banking services now deals with the single sign-in log on and it is not secured . Authentication is
now an proposed system, in this activity of linking an individual process on the basis of username and
password and basically the password is consist of characters, numbers, alphanumeric values, special
character and etc.. to make the password strong so that the attackers chould not guess the password easily
it might be difficult to remember the password but the strong password are mandatory otherwise the
software shows the message as the password is weak and it doesnot accept that weak password until we
create the strong password.

Gynecologic Imaging Reporting and Data System (GI-RADS) for revealing OvarianMasses based on Ultrasonography

Rana Ibrahim Ali Hassan, Ahmed Sabry Ahmed Ragheb, Ahmed Mohammed AlaaEldeen,Mohamed Ibrahim Amin

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 4, Pages 17-38

The adnexal masses represent a variety of diseases, ranging from normal luteal cysts
to ovarian cancer, from gynecological or non-gynecological origins. Transvaginal sonography
(TVS) has turned into the first step imaging method for describing adnexal masses. Transvaginal
ultrasonography is the initial method for detection of adnexal masses, it can visualize the deeper
structures and even note the fine details of the organs like fallopian tube and ovary, also
distinguish between benign and malignant lesions. Gynecologic Imaging Reporting and Data
System (GI-RADS): is a new system based on BI-RADS for reporting findings in adnexal masses
identified by TVS. Thick papillary projections, thick septa, solid areas with/without ascites,
defined according to the International Ovarian Tumor Analysis criteria and vascularization within
solid areas, papillary projections or central area of a solid tumor on Color or Power Doppler
assessment are suggestive signs of malignancy.

Comparative study of functional outcome of distal humerus intra-articular fracture treated with parallel plates and with orthogonal plates (A study of 30 cases)

Dr.Daljinder Singh, Dr Akashdeep Singh, Dr Sanjeev Sareen, Dr Annie Sandhu

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 4, Pages 39-52

Intra-articular distal humerus fractures remain one of the most difficult injuries to
manage. These fractures comprises 2-6% of all fractures and have bimodal age
distribution. The majority of these fractures occur either as low energy falls or high
energy trauma. Most fractures in elderly patients are intra- articular with bi-columnar
involvement. They are commonly multifragmental and occur in osteopenic bone. High
energy injuries occur in adults, which are accompanied with other associated injuries.
The elbow is anatomically a trocho-ginglymoid joint in which distal humerus bifurcates
into two divergent cortical columns, termed as medial and lateral columns. The articular
segment functions architecturally as a tie arch. The elbow is one of the most constrained
joints of the body and tolerates immobilization poorly and any alteration within the
architecture of the joint has the potential to limit motion and compromise
function.Treatment outcomes are often related to elbow stiffness, weakness and pain.
Meticulous planning is required in obtaining an anatomic intra-articular reduction, and
creating a fixation construct that is rigid enough to tolerate early mobilization. Usually,
70% of patients that sustain an elbow fracture, fall directly on to the elbow because they
are unable to break their fall with an out stretched arm. This randomized, prospective
study was undertaken to compare the functional outcomes of distal humerus intraarticular
fractures in adults treated with parallel plates and orthogonal plates. From a
clinical perspective, a parallel plating method appears to provide better rigid fixation that
is adequate for obtaining bone union. However, no statistical significant differences were
observed between the orthogonal and parallel double plating methods in terms of clinical
outcomes and complication rates. If meticulously applied, with suitable plates, both
parallel and orthogonal positioning can provide adequate stability and anatomic
reconstruction of the distal humerus fractures.

Serum Prolactin: A Possible New Marker for Severity of Liver Cirrhosis

Deepak Raj Sakhnani, Chetanya Kumar Sharma, Ajay Mathur, RajendraKasana, SandeepSaini

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 4, Pages 53-59

Background: Liver cirrhosis (LC) is an irreversible condition which results from necrosis
of hepatocytes with loss of reticular network and nodular regeneration of residual liver
tissue. This study was undertaken to assess the relation between serum prolactin levels and
the severity of the liver cirrhosis.Materials & methods: This cross-sectional observational
study was conducted during one calendar year at a tertiary care center in Western India
among 50 cases of established liver cirrhosis. Serum Prolactin was estimated using ADVIA
Centaur® CP Immunoassay System (Siemens®) by Chemiluminescent technique. The
modified Child Pugh score was calculated for each study participant. The patients were
categorized into Classes A, B or C based on the score obtained. Hepatic encephalopathy
was diagnosed and graded as per West Haven classification system. The grade I-II were
taken as mild and grade III-IV as advanced hepatic encephalopathy for calculation of the
modified Child-Pugh score. Ascites was graded as mild, moderate and severe. All the data
were stored in excel sheet using Microsoft® Office 2007. Results: The mean serum
prolactin, serum albumin, serum Bilirubin and INR were 48.1±26.8 ng/ml, 2.8±0.6 g/dl,
4.8±4.9 mg/dl and 2.2±1.0 respectively. (Table No. 1) The mean serum prolactin level in
alcoholic cirrhosis (49.2±25.1 ng/ml) does not statistically differ from non-alcoholic
cirrhosis (46.6±29.4 ng/ml) cases (p > 0.05). The mean serum prolactin level was
statistically significantly higher among cases in Modified Child Pugh Class-C (68.91 ±
17.80 ng/ml) compared to Class B (33.26 ± 7.41 ng/ml) and Class A (10.03 ± 4.01ng/ml)
cases. The mean serum prolactin level was 81.36 ± 19.85 ng/ml in cases with severe ascites,
60.09 ± 18.05 ng/ml in moderate ascites cases, 36.1583 ± 15..06 ng/ml in mild ascites cases
and 19.79 ± 12.29 ng/ml in cirrhosis cases without ascites. The difference in mean serum
prolactin level was significant among different severity of ascites. The serum prolactin
level was 81.08 ± 18.04 ng/ml in cases with advanced hepatic encephalopathy, 56.89 ±
15.05 ng/ml in cases with mild hepatic encephalopathy and 26.16 ± 13.99 ng/ml in
cirrhosis cases without encephalopathy. Conclusion: Serum Prolactin levels showed
positive correlation with Modified Child Pugh Score and Fibroscan in predicting the
severity of disease.

Factors that Influence Schoolchildren’s Willingness to Participate in Leisure-Time Physical Activities: Questionnaire Development and Content Validity Testing

Mei-Li Tsai,Tzu- Lin Lin,Chi-Jane Wang

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 4, Pages 60-71

Leisure-time physical activities (LTPA) can improve children’s physical fitness, their ability to control negative emotions, even their school performances. As the factors that influence schoolchildren’s willingness to participate in LTPA are multifaceted, an appropriate and valid measurement tool is critical for advancing the discussion of this topic. The purpose of this study is to develop a questionnaire about schoolchildren’s willingness to participate in LTPA and to verify its content validity and potential user validity. The research procedures involved three stages. The first stage was the development of the questionnaire. The questionnaire items were developed through systematic collection, review, and summary of the literature. The second stage involved eight experts in testing the content validity of the questionnaire. The third stage was to test the potential user validity with eight upper-grade students as questionnaire respondents. The systematic collection, review, and summary of the literature resulted in five factors: individual, interpersonal interactions, parents, environment, and school policies. Based on these, 36 items were drafted for the questionnaire, named “Influences on Schoolchildren’s Willingness to Participate in LTPA.” The questionnaire was validated by the eight experts. The item-content validity indexes (I-CVI) ranged between .88 and 1.0, and the summative content validity index (S-CVI) was .9. As for the items’ wording appropriateness, the I-CVI ranged between .75 and 1, while the S-CVI was .96. For potential user validity, the students rated the comprehensibility of the 36 items. Their responses fell between 3 (mostly understandable) and 4 (completely understandable). In conclusion, the expert content validity and potential user validity testing confirmed that the questionnaire has good content validity. In the future, the questionnaire will be administered to a large sample of schoolchildren to verify its construct validity and reliability


Dr Sonali Karnwal, Dr Raja Paramjeet Singh Benipal, Dr Jai Lal, Dr Pardeep Garg, Dr Manraj Singh Kang, Dr Romi Kant Grover

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 4, Pages 72-78

Worldwide, oropharyngealcancer accounts for 1.6% of all the new cases and 1.5% deaths in 2020. Overall42176, is the incidence of oropharyngeal cancers occuring in Asia, and account for approximately 30% of all the cancers in India. Oropharyngeal carcinoma is eleventh most common cancer worldwide and accounts for approximately 10 per cent of the annual worldwide incidence of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. In India, head and neck cancers contribute up to 7.8% of the global cancer burden and 8.33% of the global cancer deaths.In 2020, the incidence of oropharynx cancer worldwide is 98,412 1. In India incidence rate is 6794 2. Incidence rates are more than twice as high in men as in women3.The tonsil is the most frequent subsite of oropharyngeal cancer followed by the base of tongue.


Dr. Bharti N. Karelia Dr. Kiran G.Piparva Dr. Parulben A. Patel

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 4, Pages 79-87

Aim: To evaluate drug utilization pattern of antidiabetic drug in type-2 diabetic patients
attending at private diabetes clinic. So that, this information can be used in assessment of
quality of care provided as well as to facilitate the rational use of drugs in populations
Objective: To evaluate the current trends of prescribing patterns of antidiabetic drug in type
2 diabetic patients
Material and Methods: An observational prospective study undertaken at diabetes clinic from January 2015 to April 2016 after approval from institutional ethic committee. Total 600 patients of type 2 diabetes mellitus were enrolled. Data related to demographic details of the patient (age, gender and BMI, occupation, social status), past history, family history, personal history, all investigations, drug treatment and adverse drug reaction were recorded in suitable case record form. Follow up was carried out for all patients every 3rd, 6th, 9th and 12th month visit for glycaemic control. Data were entered into Microsoft excel 2010 and analysed by descriptive statistics (percentage, mean, standard deviation) and chi square test.
Results: Out of 600 patients, 58.67% were males and 41.33% were females. The mean age of the patients was 51.85 ± 4.24 years. Hypertension (31%) was most common co-morbid illness.Most common complaint was weakness (18.33%). Majority prescriptions had fixed dose combination (FDC) of two antidiabetic drugs (93.2%). Most commonly prescribed FDC was of sulfonylureas (Gliclazide) and Biguanide group (Metformin)in 552(92%). Average number of drugs per encounter was 3.02, 0.3 % drug was prescribed by generic name, 4.17% drug was antibiotic, 7.7% drug was injectable medicine, 14.27% drugs was prescribed from national list of essential medicine and 11.35% drugs were prescribed from WHO essential list of medicine. Fixed dose combinations were prescribed in 57.27% of patients. Glycaemic controlled was observed in 32.84 % patients.
Conclusion: Sulfonylurea and Biguanide combination most commonly used to treat type 2 DM and among them Gliclazide and Metformin combinations was most commonly prescribed.