Online ISSN: 2515-8260

Current Issue
Volume 10, Issue 5

Volume 10, Issue 5, Winter 2023



European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2023, Volume 10, Issue 5, Pages 1-8

Intercondylar fracture of distal humerus is one of the difficult fracture involving the humerus in adults.
Intercondylar fracture distal humerus in adults are difficult to manage due to complex anatomy of
elbow. We present a method of surgical treatment of intercondylar humerus fracture in adults by
open reduction with JESS fixator and to evaluate functional outcome and associated complication with
application of JESS fixator. MATERIALS & METHODS: It is Institutional based, prospective study carried
out from June 2021 to May 2022.Twenty cases of intercondylar distal humerus fracture were reduced
and fixed with K-wire and finally JESS was applied. Patient were follow up at 1week, 4weeks, 6weeks
& 12weeks and clinically evaluated with Mayo’s elbow performance score. RESULTS:According to AO
classification 4 cases had C1 fractures, 14 cases had C2 fractures and and 2 cases had C3 fractures. 3
cases had open injury among which two were of C2 and 1 were C3 type. All cases were operated using
paratricipital approach and average duration of JESS application was 7 week and mean follow up
duration was 9 months. Irrespective of injury pattern 9(45%) cases showed excellent results, 7(35%)
showed good results, 3(15%) cases showed fair results and 1(5%) case showed poor
results.DISCUSSION: The goal of intercondylar fracture management by JESS technique is to achieve
early range of motion of anatomically align joint. CONCLUSION:This study shows comparatively good
results using JESS fixator. This procedure is viable alternative option to ORIF dur to its simplicit, costeffectiveness
and easy implant removal on day care basis.

Conventional dressing material versus newer dressing material : A prospective study in Dept. Of General Surgery, Narayana Medical College, Nellore


European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2023, Volume 10, Issue 5, Pages 9-14

BACKGROUND:. The dressing of wounds is an old art and has undergone a wide variety of changes from
ancient herbal dressing to modern dressing materials. An ideal wound care product in addition to control
the infection should also protect the normal tissues and must not interfere with the normal wound
healing. Various treatment modalities have been discovered over the years in forms of different types of
wound dressings like creams, ointments, solutions while other classes of wound dressings are occlusive
dressing, non-occlusive dressing, absorptive dressing, skin substitutes and negative suction vacuum
dressing.METHODS: prospective, observational study carried out in Dept. of General Surgery, Narayana
Medical College, Nellore 1st September 2020 to 30th August 2022 in 50 patients divided in two groups.
conventional dressing materials (Regime A) and newer dressing materials (Regime B) on random basis.
Povidone iodine, H2O2, EUSOL and liquid paraffin are the conventional materials which are compared with
the newer materials such as oxum, oxoferine, collagen and opsite. RESULTS & CONCLUSION : maximum
age group between 51 to 60 (23%) years. A total of 17 females were enrolled during this study, out of
which 9 patients were considered in Regime A and 8 patients in Regime B. 33 males were enrolled in this
study, out of which 17 were included in Regime A and 16 in Regime B. The time required for the appearance
of granulation tissue by newer dressing materials took 3 days when compared to the conventional dressing
materials and finally the time required for the healing ulcer took 4 days early with newer dressing
materials compared to conventional dressing materials

Effect of Bupivacaine and Fentanyl v/s Bupivacaine and Butorphanol in labour analgesia by Epidural technique :A Comparative Study in a Tertiary Care Hospital,Telangana,India

Dr.Thati Nagender, Dr.Srinivas Naik Bhukya,Dr.J Naresh Kumar, Dr.Mounika Vadithya .

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2023, Volume 10, Issue 5, Pages 15-36

Background: The primary reason for epidural analgesia is labour pain. It is the only method
that effectively reduces intense labour pain. It provides a labour trial for high-risk patients
who have had a previous Caesarean section, anticipates a challenging intubation, and is
obese Objectives :To compare the efficacy of Bupivacaine and Fentanyl v/s Bupivacaine
and Butorphanol regarding onset of analgesia, duration of analgesia, quality of analgesia and
fetal out come in epidural labour analgesia.Methodology: One hundred primigravida
patients between the ages of 18 and 26 with ASA grades 1 and 2 were chosen at random and
split into two groups of fifty each. Patients in Group 1 received 0.1% Bupivacaine and
0.0002% Fentanyl by lumbar epidural method, while patients in Group 2 received 0.1%
Bupivacaine and 1 mg Butorphanol. Throughout the surgery, the mother's and foetus'
hemodynamics were monitored. The onset, duration, and quality of analgesia, the length of
labour, the frequency of instrumental deliveries, the frequency of side effects, and the
outcome for the newborn were all noted, compared, and statistically assessed

A study of oxidative stress in Post Menopausal cervical cancer patients in Udaipur, Rajasthan, India - an institutional study

Ms Shilpa Sharma , Dr A K Verma, Dr Shuchi Goyal, Dr Rajul Lodha ,Mamta Rathore5 .

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2023, Volume 10, Issue 5, Pages 37-44

Background: Cervical cancer is a preventable disease because it has a premalignant stage which may last up to 10-20 years before its progression to invasive carcinoma. The potential role of ROS in DNA damage as well as the nutritional etiology of cervical neoplasia (which include low dietary intake of vitamin C, carotenoids, vitamin E, and folate) has been suggested. Objectives: The objective of this study is to measure the oxidant status. To estimate and compare serum levels of MDA (malondialdehyde) in postmenopausal cervical cancer patients and healthy age matched control. Methodology: This case control study consist of 90 patients of cervical cancer along with 60 healthy subjects of précised matched age within the institution. blood samples was collected from all participants and were analysed for oxidant MDA (malondialdehyde) .Results obtained were analyzed statistically to see the significance of differences. Results: The Mean concentration of S.MDA (nmol/L) in case group was 5.77 ±2.40 while that of control group 2.03±0.70 and the difference among them found to be highly significant. The mean age of cervical cancer group(case) is 51.26 ±5.43 yr while that of control group is 55.60±4.50 year. According to demographic data .Smoking history present in 16% and 11% in case and control group respectively.History of alcohol present in 9.9% and 4.2% in case and control group respectively.Among total 90 patients of cervical cancer 86(95.55%) females were married. Conclusion: In conclusion, this study has shown that the patients with cervical cancer have high lipid peroxidation (MDA), which is a marker of oxidative stress; and this worsened as the disease progressed. There is a need for antioxidant supplementation in these patients to reduce oxidative stress.

“Multiple Myeloma: A clinicopathologic and cytogenetic analysis of 45 patients in a tertiary care centre.”

Dr.MadhaviParigi,Dr.Ch.Geetha,Dr.AswhaniTandon .

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2023, Volume 10, Issue 5, Pages 45-55

Aims & Objectives:Clinico-pathological analysis of all cases diagnosed as MM. To find genetic abnormalities by cytogenetics & fluorescence in situ hybridization(FISH) in this heterogenous group.
Material and Method: All the cases of MM diagnosed between January 2012 to July 2014 were included in the study. The clinical details including presentation, electrophoresis, renal parameters were taken from clinical records. The bone marrow slides were retrieved and reviewed. Conventional cytogenetics and FISH analysis was performed in 14 and 8 patients respectively.
Results: The study included 45 patients in the age range of 40-82 years with male predominance (M:F=1.5:1). Most of the patients (21) presented with complaints of back pain and weakness. Renal dysfunction was seen in 29 patients with mean creatinine of 2.5mg/dl. Immunoelectrophoresis revealed M band in 19 cases. The bone marrow plasma cell ranged from 15% to 90%. The commonest morphology was that of Marshalko type whereas plasmablastic type was rare. The cytogenetic abnormalities detected were aneuploidy, trisomy 1 and 9, 13q deletion.
Conclusion: This study reflects our experience of 45 patients of MM with respect to clinical features, bone marrow morphology and cytogenetic analysis.

Comparative study between Esmolol and Mgso4 for attenuation of Sympathomimetic response to laryngoscopy and intubation – a randomized control trial.

Dr.vijetha devaram , Dr.prithvi Raj , Dr.Avula Charan Teja , Dr.mayana ayesha khanam , Dr.chaithanya Kumar.Dr.Hariprasad Reddy .

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2023, Volume 10, Issue 5, Pages 56-69

Background & Aim: Direct laryngoscopy & Endotracheal intubation causes sympathetic response which is deleterious to patient. Various drugs are used to attenuate this response for better hemodynamic control. In this study, we aim to compare the efficacy of esmolol to that of mgso4 for attenuation of this response. Methods: After obtaining approval from institution ethics committee and informed written consent from the patients, 60 patients coming for elective surgeries under general anesthesia were randomly allocated into 2 groups, Group E (Esmolol 1mg/kg) and Group M (Magnesium sulfate (MgSO4) 25mg /kg), with 30 patients in each group. Patients received drugs 5 min before intubation; HR, SBP, DBP and MAP were calculated at baseline, 0 min, 1 min, 3 min, 5 min and 10 min. Results: Baseline parameters were compared between 2 groups, which were statistically not significant. HR at 1 min (p=0.034) and 3 min (p=0.025) was statistically significant in favor of Group M. SBP, DBP and MAP were reduced better with Group E than Group M, but statistically not significant. Conclusion: MgSO4 reduces the sympathetic stimulation to laryngoscopy and intubation as effectively as Esmolol. MgSO4 also has the advantage of providing analgesia, reducing the dose of anesthetics, and provides better hemodynamic profile throughout intra-operative period.

comparative study between 0.2% Ropivacaine with 0.5 mcg/ ml Dexmedetomidine and 2 mcg/ ml Fentanyl with 0.2%Ropivacaine in Labor Epidural Analgesiafor the onset and duration of sensory block.


European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2023, Volume 10, Issue 5, Pages 70-79

Background: Labor epidural analgesia is an effective method of reducing pain during labor. For labour epidural, opioid sparing analgesia is gaining popularity.Opioidsparing drugs like dexmedetomidinehas been as an adjuvant to local anaesthetics with fewer side effects in various techniques and its less explored in labor epidural analgesia. Objective: To compare analgesic effects of dexmedetomidine and fentanyl when added to ropivacaine for labor epidural analgesia. Materials and methods: An observational comparative study was done after obtaining approval from ethicalcommittee(IEC/NMCH/15/02/2022_7), 60 nulliparous parturients were divided into 2 groups to receive either dexmedetomidine 0.5mcg/ ml with 0.2% ropivacaine (10 ml) or fentanyl 2mcg /ml with 0.2%ropivacaine 10ml.Onset and duration of sensory blockade was noted after giving first bolus. Results: The mean onset time of sensory-block in fentanyl group is higher thandexmedetomidine group. The duration of the sensory blockade showed a statisticallysignificant difference between the two study groups (p<0.05).There was significant alteration seen in hemodynamics between the study groups. No side effects were encountered in either group. Conclusion: Dexmedetomidineis superior to fentanyl as an adjuvant to ropivacainefor opioid sparing analgesia in labor epidural by providing longer duration of sensory blockade without any side effects.

Rapid Prototyping: A Revolutionary Technique in Dentistry: A Review

Ajay Kumar Dubey, Bazeela Imtiyaz, Bushra Vasim

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2023, Volume 10, Issue 5, Pages 80-85

Rapid prototyping is a CAD/CAM technology introduced in 1980s is a branch of engineering used to fabricate scale model based on three-dimensional computer aided design (CAD) data. In the past two decades RP was utilized in medical and field and has given promising results. RP has many dental applications such as preparing implant surgical guides, mould for metal castings, zirconia prosthesis and framework for fixed and removable partial dentures, wax patterns fabrication of dental prosthesis and complete denture

Effect of Disinfectants on Elastomers: A Review

Dr. Anuradha, Dr. Abhisheik Sachdeva, Dr. Sonal Shah

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2023, Volume 10, Issue 5, Pages 86-89

Addition silicone and polysulfide impressions were disinfected without a loss in accuracy, whereas polyether impressions were adversely affected. The surface quality of dies was acceptable with disinfection and one disinfectant contributed to an improvement in surface quality compared with the control.A working cast-and-die system of improved dental stone used with cast dental restorations must provide dimensional accuracy, strength, and resistance to abrasion, and must reproduce surface detail. These impressions can act as vehicles of transmission and carry various types of microorganisms, which further cause diseases like Hepatitis B, C, HIV, Tuberculosis etc. This contamination and cross contamination of microorganisms can be prevented by disinfecting the impressions immediately after removing from the mouth and label them as disinfected.

Comparison of Serum Immunoglobulin (IgG, IgM and IgA) Concentration During Active and Inactive Disease States in Patients with Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis

Rayhan SM, Akter M,Islam I .

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2023, Volume 10, Issue 5, Pages 102-110

Background:The majority of patients with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA), a prevalent rheumatological condition, are predicted to have abnormal immunoglobulin concentrations upon presentation during the early active disease state, which would normalize after treatment during the inactive disease state. Immunoglobulin concentration can therefore be changed due to Immunomoduler drugs.Objectives:The objective of this study is to investigate the serum levels of IgG, IgM, and IgA in JIA patients in order to better understand the serum immunoglobulin concentration throughout active and inactive disease states.Methods: This is an observational study. The study used to be carried out in the admitted patient’s Department of Paediatrics, Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University (BSMMU), Bangladesh from October 2015 to March 2017.The medical records and radiographs of 33 patients who participated in this study were the source of the data. Statistical analysis of the results was previously obtained using window-based software created with Statistical Packages for Social Sciences (SPSS-24).Results: The study comprised 33 JIA patients with ages ranging from 1 to >9 years old. The active states of IgG (g/L), IgM (g/L), and IgA (g/L) in this instance were 13.04±4.41, 3.25±1.80 and 3.29±1.18 respectively, according to Parameter. Additionally, the inactive states of IgG, IgM, and IgA were 9.88±2.31, 1.82±0.88 and 1.34±0.47, respectively. Conclusions:The study concluded that high and abnormal levels of immunoglobulin (IgG, IgM, and IgA) is present among JIA patient in active disease state which became normal in inactive state.

Investigating od some Lab parameters in Covid-19 patients in Kirkuk City-Iraq before and weeks after IL-6 antagonist therapy, a short prospective, observational study

Zeyad Khalaf Maded, Gulden Adnan Mohammed Baqer, Marwa Shakir Saeed, Muhannad Abdulla Alazzawy

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2023, Volume 10, Issue 5, Pages 127-137

Interleukin-6 receptor antagonists (IL-6RAs) and steroids are emerging immunomodulatory therapies for severe and critical coronavirus disease (COVID-19). In this preliminary report, we aim to describe the epidemiology, clinical characteristics, and outcomes of adult critically ill COVID-19 patients,
Aim: to evaluate whether the immunomodulation with an IL-6 antagonist is associated with an improved hemostasis in patients with COVID-19 as measured by viscoelastic tests.
Materials and methods: This prospective study was conducted in Kirkuk city – Iraq, from the first of March 2021 until the end of June 2021. The study included 50 patients from both sexes with age above (18-60) years. Clinical and laboratory parameters, such as blood pressure (systolic, diastolic), heart rate, peripheral capillary oxygen saturation (SpO2), respiratory rate, body temperature, disease severity scores, ventilation parameters, blood gas parameters, VHA results will be recorded at set time intervals (see later). All the medication that the patient has taken during the study period will be noted. Blood culture samples will also be taken when indicated to exclude superinfection thus ensuring that these will not influence the results of the study. Blood sample was collected by vein puncture from each subject enrolled in this study .  for determination  of ALT, AST, LDH , S. creatinine, BUN , TSB and  S . Albumin . The primary outcome is the change of the Lab parameters measured   before IL-6 antagonist and  2 weeks after immunomodulation therapy of IL-6 antagonist. As and the effect of it are relatively shortly seen in inflammatory parameters after administration, we decided to use the parameters. In addition, the study will investigate the following secondary outcomes
Results: The study revealed that, the risk of covid-19 infection increased with age as elderly was most affected. The study showed that 36.36%  of covid-19 smoker cases were with  severe infection, 27.27%  were with critical  infection and 18.18% were with moderate infection (P<0.001). The study demonstrated that,   74% (37 0f 50) of covid-19 infected patients improved after two weeks of infection 22% had complication of infection while unfortunately, 4%  (3 of 50) died due to complications of Covid-19 infection.The study showed  that random  blood sugar was relatively high in COVID-19 patients  (213.4±60.14) mg/dL and  then decreased slightly two weeks after treatment (174.9±49.9) mg/dL  compared to the control group  (105.7  ±15.9) (P:0.001), andthe highest rate of D-Dimer testing was recorded in  COVID-19 patients  (760.3±187).  8 ng/ml  and then decreased slightly two weeks after treatment (167.3±657.9 ng/ml compared to the control group  (105.7±15.9). The study also showed that the highest rate of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) was recorded in COVID-19 patients  (  348.6±65.7) U/L  and then relatively decreased after two weeks of treatment  (315.3±60.4) U/L  compared to the control group (96.7±23.9)  U/L.  The study showed that the  highest levels of ferritin were recorded in COVID-19 patients  (390.4±83.5) ng/ml and then relatively low two weeks after treatment  (319.5±81). 3)ng/ml, compared to the control group (96.7±23.9)ng/ml. The study also revealed that the  highest levels of urea, creatinine and ALT were recorded in patients with  Covid- and then its rate decreased relatively two weeks after receiving treatment, compared  to a group. While  the study revealed that the rate of albumin  was significantly low in COVID-19 patients  and then  increased relatively after two weeks of receiving compared to the control group who were characterized by a normal rate of albumin. TCZ appears to be an effective treatment option in COVID-19 patients with a risk of cytokine storms. And for these critically ill patients with elevated IL-6, the repeated dose of the TCZ is recommended

Guided endodontics. Advantages disadvantages and future prospects. An overview

Mohammed Hussain Alasmari, Mariam Alkhaldi, Suhael Ahmed

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2023, Volume 10, Issue 5, Pages 138-145

Guided endodontics is an advanced technique that can be considered as an alternate to conventional method. It is used in a variety of procedures, particularly in microsurgical endodontics, accessing and locating root canals in teeth with pulp canal obliteration, and removing glass fiber posts in endodontic retreatments. Additionally, it is unaffected by an operator's level of experience and requires less treatment time for the patients and is more precise and safer than conventional endodontics. The main aim of this research is to conduct an updated review of the literature on guided endodontics based on the most recent scientific research to identify and describe its advantages, and its disadvantages and to identify what the future holds for it. Literature search was conducted using four electronic databases: PubMed, Scopus, Science Direct, and Web of Science from the period January 2012 to december 2022. Out of 1135 results, 29 articles were reviewed after elimination of duplicates

An analytical study to compare the efficacy between anterior and posterior approach of intra-articular steroid injection in adhesive capsulitis of shoulder

Chauhan Praful Kumar, Jangde Pravin Kumar, Behra Akhilesh, Agrawal Roshan Kumar, Noor Sofia

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2023, Volume 10, Issue 5, Pages 146-155

Primary adhesive capsulitis is generally idiopathic while the secondary adhesive capsulitis is associated with diabetes, trauma, cardiovascular disease, rotator cuff disease and impingement etc. Early treatment with Intra-articular corticosteroid may reduce synovitis, limits the development of capsular fibrosis and alters the natural history of the disease. We conducted this study to assess the efficacy of Intra-articular steroid on pain reduction and functional outcome in Adhesive Capsulitis of shoulderwith a comparison between anterior and posterior approach.
Methodology: Thiswas prospective cross-sectional study to compare ultrasound guided anterior and posterior intra-articular steroid injection in adhesive capsulitis of shoulder joint studied in 50 cases, 25 in each group.
Observations and Results:  The mean age in group A was 52.54 ±6.02 years and group B was 55.72 ±7.96 years. There were 12 (48%) and 13 (52%) male patients among Group A and Group B respectively. The mean duration of pain in patients in Group A was 3.45 ±1.81 months and in Group B was 3.90 ±3.06 months. There was significant reduction in mean SPADI score and VAS score within each group from before till after the treatment, with no significant difference in clinical or functional outcomes. The majority of patient had excellent outcomes i.e. 48% and 52% in Group A and B respectively, with no difference when compared statistically for procedure outcome. (p>0.05).
Conclusion: We observed a significant improvement in clinical and functional status of the patients with no observable difference between the anterior or posterior approach for intra-articular corticosteroid injection

Assessment of behaviour towards blood donation among interns of Government Medical College Raigarh, Chhattisgarh

Chaurasia Ravindra Kumar, Agrawal Roshan, Sahu Tribhuwan Kumar, Patel Kishor Kumar, Noor Sofia

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2023, Volume 10, Issue 5, Pages 156-170

Safe and effective blood donation is a vital component in improving health care delivery for preventing the spread of blood borne diseases worldwide. According to World Health Organization (WHO), at least 1% of the nation’s population should donate blood voluntarily to meet the basic requirement for blood and blood products. Blood scarcity is frequently encountered in health care settings and is attributable to an imbalance between increasing demand for safe blood in one hand and failure to organize regular blood supply due to misconceptions, perceived harms and risks, lack of motivation among donors.



European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2023, Volume 10, Issue 5, Pages 171-176

The advent of laparoscopy stands as an evolutionary change in medicine for the treatment of appendicitis. This procedure came into existence over 100 years with different modalities like single dermatome laparoscopic appendectomy and conventional laparoscopic appendectomy. Though these techniques exist, the advantageous of these did not came into practice and hence the study is designed.
Aim: To compare the outcome on patient compliance in single dermatome laparoscopic appendicectomy and conventional laparoscopic appendicectomy.
Materials & Methods: The study was conducted in department of surgery of our hospital for a period of 6 months. A total of 50 patients who are diagnosed with acute appendicitis were included in the study and are categorised into two groups (Group A receiving Single Dermatome Laparoscopic Appendectomy and Group B receiving Conventional Laparoscopic Appendectomy). Hospital stay and duration of analgesia were noted.
Results: The results of the study proved that, Single dermatome laparoscopic appendectomy has shown less duration of hospital stay and analgesia as compared to conventional laparoscopic appendectomy with p<0.05.
Conclusion: SDLA is found to be more advantageous over CLA


Dr Neha Sharma , Dr Israr-ul-Haq Lone,Dr Sifna Tahir, Dr Anita Sharma, Dr Neha Chajgotra

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2023, Volume 10, Issue 5, Pages 177-192

Pulmonary complications have detrimental effect on the disease progression leading to increased hospitalization, postoperative morbidity and mortality. Aim: To find the incidence of postoperative pulmonary complications in patients undergoing elective intracranial surgery. Methods: This Prospective observational study was conducted from 2020- 2022 in Superspeciality hospital, Shireen Bagh, Srinagar over a period of 18 months after approval by Institutional Ethical Committee. All patients underwent questionnaire about the preoperative data including Age,  Sex,  Weight,  ASA physical state,  History of smoking,  Obstructive sleep apnea and  Snoring. All the intracranial procedures were performed under general anaesthesia. After the surgical procedure patients were shifted to Superspeciality ICU and were followed daily from immediate postoperative period until a new surgical intervention, hospital discharge or death. Results: Out of 132 study patients, 79 (59.8%) were diagnosed with Meningioma, 18 (13.6%) patients Glioma, 17 (12.9%) with Pituitary Macroadenoma, 6 (4.5%) with CP Angle Tumor, 5 (3.8%) with Medulloblastoma, 4 (3%) with Posterior Fossa Tumor and 3 (2.3%) with Astrocytoma. Postoperative Pulmonary Complications were observed in 31 (23.5%) patients. Most common complication was found out to be Atelectasis (17.4%) followed by Tracheobronchitis (6.8%) followed by Pneumonia (6.1%), followed by ARDS (4.5%) and Weaning Failure in 6 (4.5%) study participants. Total number of postoperative pulmonary complications observed were 52. the mean duration of stay in ICU of patients who had POPCs was much higher (4.65 days) as compared to those who did not have POPCs (1.83 days). Conclusion: In our study, given a modest sample size, the incidence of POPCS in patients undergoing elective craniotomies was 23.5% and we were able to identify certain risk factors of POPC in our population, however more replicative studies with a larger sample size are warranted to substantiate these findings so that future preventive strategies can be formulated.


Dr.Sangeeta Shah, Dr.Jyothsna Marri, Dr.Lakshmi Devi, Dr.Firdous Fatima

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2023, Volume 10, Issue 5, Pages 204-215

Surgical site infections (SSI)  and  wound dehiscence are one of the most frequently identified postoperative complications.
DFINITION: Surgical site infections are defined as infections occurring up to 30days after surgery and affecting either the incision or deep tissue at the operation site.
Surgical site infections are presented with,
A) Erythema or induration
B) Serous oozing
C) Presence of pus
D) Wound dehiscence(separation of edges of suture line by more than1cm superficial or  deep).
Various risk factors are responsible for  surgical site infections(SSI)  and  wound dehiscence such as  emergency surgery,malnutrition, low  socioeconomic status, previous major abdominal surgeries, less inter-pregnancy interval , systemic diseases,etc.
The progression of a wound to an infected state and then wound dehiscence , involves a multitude of microbial and host factors such as type, site, size and depth of found, the extent of nonviable exogenous contamination , level of blood perfusion to the wound , general health and the   immune status of the host , obesity , advanced age, diabetes mellitus , malnutrition , prolonged surgery, prolonged preoperative stay, infection at a remote site, duration of surgery, surgical technique, inappropriate use of antimicrobial prophylaxis, perioperative ,temperature, stage of labor in which  the  patient  was taken for surgery, duration of labour prior to surgery, poor postoperative glycemic control. All the factors pose a substantial risk with regard to prolonged hospital stay, morbidity , mortality , costs and inappropriate usage of broad spectrum antibiotics leading to anti-microbial resistance



European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2023, Volume 10, Issue 5, Pages 216-227

INTRODUCTION:Human coronavirus hadstarted its widespread pandemic from the year of 2019. Although, molecular analysis are used for diagnosis,Computed Tomography (CT) of chest,had played a major role in assessing the severity of COVID-19.
AIM:To evaluate the effectiveness of CT 40 point and CT 25point severity scoring (CT-SS) systems in correlation with oxygen saturation.
MATERIALS AND METHODS:A total of 395 patients COVID-19 patients with CT chest imaging were included. The CT-40 SSdependsupon parenchymal opacification. Scores of 0, 1, and 2 were given for which parenchymal opacification involved were 0%, < 50% and ≥ 50% respectively. Score of 1-12 is mild; Score of 13-19 is moderate; Score >20 is severe. The CT-25SSdependsupon lobar involvement. i.e., ≤ 5% - Score 1, 5%-25% - Score 2, 26%-50% -Score 3, 51-75% - Score 4,>75% - Score 5.Mild is ≤ 7, Moderate is 8-17, Severe is ≥ 18.
ANALYSIS AND RESULTS:The spearman correlation co-efficient for CT-40 SS and CT-25 SS was found to be r =-0.7636 and r = -0.6665 respectively, based on the r value CT-40 SS is better than CT-25 SS. Increase in CT-SS results in decreased O2 saturation. The sensitivity and specificity of CT40 SS in correlation to O2 saturation was found to be 88% and 78% respectively with area under ROC curve of 0.885. The sensitivity and specificity of CT 25 SS in correlation to O2 saturation was found to be 79% and 80% respectively with area under ROC curve of 0.912.
CONCLUSION:CT-SS had contributed an important role and proven its efficacy in assisting physicians for assessing the progression of COVID -19.



European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2023, Volume 10, Issue 5, Pages 238-249

BACKGROUND: In percutaneous nephrolithotomy surgeries post operative pain due to dilatation of the renal capsule, the parenchymal tract and placement of the nephrostomy tube is distressing to the patient. Quadratus lumborum (QL) block and Erector spinae (ESP) block are two emerging myofascial plane blocks that leverage multimodal analgesia to improve postoperative pain control. AIM:To compare the efficacy of ultrasound guided Quadratus lumborum block with 20 ml of 0.25% Bupivacaine and 8 mg Dexamethasone vs Erector Spinae block with 20 ml of 0.25% Bupivacaine and 8 mg Dexamethasone for post operative analgesia in patients undergoing PCNL surgeries under general anaesthesia. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Sixty patients scheduled for percutaneous nephrolithotomy were randomly allocated into two groups QLB and ESPB groups, patients received unilateral (QLBIII or ESPB) respectively, with 0.3–0.4 ml/kg of bupivacaine 0.25%. The primary outcome was the Pain relief by using Visual Analogue Score (VAS), time for the first rescue analgesic (inj. tramadol 2mg/kg I.V), number of rescue analgesics in first 24 hours post operatively, total dose of opioid in 24hrs of post op period. The secondary outcomes were the Hemodynamic parameters, any adverse events in the post operative period.
RESULTS: Demographic parameters i.e., age and sex (only male patients were included) showed no significant differences in the two groups. The Mean time of first rescue analgesia
European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine
ISSN 2515-8260 Volume 10, Issue 05, 2023
in group Q and group E was 486±75 and 352±67 mins. and p value of 0.02 was statistically significant. Number of patients required analgesia in 24 hrs of post op in group Q and Group E was 10 and 19, and p value of 0.001 was statistically significant. Total dose of opioid consumption (mg) 33.33±40.46 and 96.44±94.4 in group Q and Group E. CONCLUSION: Ultrasound guided quadratus lumborum block provides better post operative analgesia than ultrasound guided erector spinae block in percutaneous nephrolithotomy.

Mouthwashes as Adjuvant in the Treatment of COVID 19 Patients: Review of Literature and Updates

Alhanouf Binhezaim, Ibrahim Alsultan, Afnan Alsaleem, Tahani Almutairi, Albatool Alahmari

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2023, Volume 10, Issue 5, Pages 250-258

COVID-19 has wreaked havoc on the world, causing millions of deaths and even more permanent health issues. Studies have examined various adjuvant treatments for this virus, with existing literature indicating that the use of mouthwashes and oral rinses can reduce viral load as well as improve clinical symptoms. However, there are many different types of mouthwash products available, with both in vivo and in vitro studies having been conducted. The aim of this review of the literature is to examine the use of various mouthwashes as an adjuvant treatment against the COVID-19 virus.
Method: A database search of CINAHL, PubMed, Embase, and Web of Science databases was conducted using certain keywords and phrases, along with Boolean operators. The results were limited to those published between 2020 and 2023.
Results: A total of 16 articles were identified which examined five primary molecules in mouthwashes: hydrogen peroxide, povidone-iodine, chlorhexidine, chlorine dioxide, and phthalocyanine derivate.
Conclusion: There is good evidence to support the use of povidone-iodine, chlorhexidine, and phthalocyanine derivate as adjuvant treatments for COVID-19

“Formulation development and evaluation of chitosan nanoparticles loaded with curcumin’

Km Uma, Pragati Bailwal, Himanshi Kaushik, Naveen Sharma, Anamika vats

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2023, Volume 10, Issue 5, Pages 259-280

The ancient Indian system of medicine – Ayurveda is concerned with prevention, diagnosis and cure of disease. Traditional doctors in India and China have long used turmeric as a remedy. Turmeric is widely consumed in the countries of its origin for a variety of uses, including a dietary spice, a dietary pigment, and an Indian folk medicine for the treatment of various illness. Currently turmeric has been of immense interest all over the medicinal world and proposed as potential candidate for therapeutic medicament development for wide range of its therapeutic and biological activities including