Pathophysiological Changes in Cord Blood and Placenta in Hypertensive Pregnant Women
European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine,
2020, Volume 7, Issue 11, Pages 7515-7522
AbstractBackground: Infant and maternal mortality has raised serious concerns since ages. Ongoing researches in this field aim to develop insights in successful maternal and infant care programmes.
Objective: A comparative study of haematological changes in cord blood and morphological changes in placenta in hypertensive pregnant women with normal pregnant women.
Method: This study was conducted in the department of Physiology in collaboration with the department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology and department of Pathology, after taking permission from the institutional Ethics Committee. Sample size included 100 third trimester pregnant women of 20-40 yrs. Study group included subjects (n=50) with Blood Pressure ≥ 140/90mmHg. Control group included subjects (n=50) with normal Blood Pressure (Systolic=100-139 mm Hg; Diastolic= 60-89 mm Hg). foetal details i.e. foetal weight, maturity, Apgar scores at the first and fifth minute, Haematological parameters (haemoglobin concentration, total RBC count, Blood Indices, total platelets count, total WBC count, differential leucocyte count in cord blood) and gross changes in placental morphology (weight, shape, surface area, thickness, no of cotyledons) and histopathological changes (syncytial knot formation, fibrinoid necrosis, syncytial trophoblastic proliferation, hyalinised villi, calcification in placenta) were duly studied.
Results: The gestational age was significantly lower in hypertensive group (37±1.3). Premature babies were delivered more to hypertensive mothers. Cesarean sections were more done in hypertensive mothers (n=33). The weight of newborn baby was found lower in hypertensive group (2408±413). Absolute neutrophil count (ANC), absolute lymphocyte count (ALC), platelets count were significantly lower in hypertensive mother’s cord blood when compared with maternal blood (p<.05). The reduced placental weight was found in hypertensive group as compared to normal group. In hypertensive group, the less thickness and surface area were noted. The less mean number of cotyledons were observed in anaemic group. Calcified areas, Syncytial knot formation, Fibrinoid necrosis, hyalinised villi, perivillous fibrin deposition, intervillous space, hypovascular villi were seen significantly more in hypertensive group as compared to normal group. Calcified areas, Syncytial knot formation, Fibrinoid necrosis, hyalinised villi, perivillous fibrin deposition, intervillous space, hypovascular villi were seen significantly more in hypertensive group as compared to normal group.
Conclusion: Hypertension in pregnancy influence haematological changes in cord blood and morphology of placenta which in turn adversely affect the perinatal outcome.
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