A prospective observational study to assess the clinic-etiologic profile of visual impairment in Bihar Region
European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine,
2020, Volume 7, Issue 8, Pages 5717-5722
AbstractAim: The aim of the presents study to determine the clinical Profile of Causes of Visual Impairment in Bihar Region.
Methods: A prospective observational study was conducted in the Department of Ophthalmology, Jawahar Lal Nehru Medical College and Hospital, Bhagalpur, Bihar, India, for 24 months. 100 patients were included in this study. History was obtained regarding any ocular complaints, and a detailed ophthalmic examination was done which included a detailed torch light examination, assessment of visual acuity using Snellen’s distance vision chart and Times New Roman near vision chart, tonometry using Schiotz tonometer, and fundus examination using direct ophthalmoscope.
Results: The majority of the participants 45(45%) were middle-aged belonging to the age group of 40-60 years; while the least 6(6%) were those aged below 20 years . The majority i.e. 72(72%) participants used L.P.G as fuel at home; while coal, wood or cow dung was used by 22(22%) and 6(6%) used both. The participants studied were grouped into; no visual impairment i.e. 75(75%), visual impairment Grade 1 i.e. 15(15%), Grade 2 i.e. 5(5%) or blindness Grade 3 i.e.4(4%), Grade 4 i.e. 1 (1%) based on WHO classification of low vision.
Out of the 100 patients that were studied, majority i.e. 85 patients (85%) had refractive errors. In some cases, more than one type of refractive error was noted. Majority of the participants 30(30%) had hypermetropia, followed by myopia 22(22%) and astigmatism 14(14%). In 67% of individuals aged 40 years and above, presbyopia was noted. 1 patient (1%) had a nebular corneal opacity, which had developed following trauma with an iron nail. 22 patients i.e. 22% had cataract; out of which, 15 patients had bilateral cataract, and 7 patients had unilateral cataract. 5 patients (5%) that were studied were found to have glaucoma. 2 patients were aged more than 40 years and had primary open angle glaucoma. 3 patients (3%) had optic atrophy due to causes other than glaucoma. 6 participants (6%) presented with retinopathy due to diabetes or hypertension. 3 patients i.e 3% had macular diseases such as age related or hereditary macular degeneration.
Conclusion: We concluded that the health education and creating a greater awareness among the population are the only means by which they can be identified at the earliest and treated accordingly. This will reduce the burden of visual impairment and blindness, which will in turn reduce the economic burden on our society.
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