Clinical Study on Etiopathology of Oral Cavity Malignancies among Adults in Telangana
European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine,
2021, Volume 8, Issue 2, Pages 2727-2732
AbstractBackground: The incidence of oral cancers is increasing every year across the globe. India is of the countries which shares a high burden of oral malignancies owing to habits such as beetle chewing, smokeless tobacco use, smoking, and alcoholism. the current study aimed to describe the spectrum of clinical features in patients with oral malignancies along with the determination of etiological factors for oral malignancies reporting to our hospital.
Methods: this cross-sectional study was conducted in the Department of ENT, Govt. ENT Hospital, Osmania Medical College, Koti, Hyderabad, Telangana. All the suspected cases with oral lesions were subjected to detailed history, clinical examination, and under local anesthesia with 10% xylocaine spray using Luc’s forceps biopsy was taken from edge of lesion and sent for histopathological examination.
Results: Highest frequency of malignancy was observed in the 31 – 50 years age group with 54% of all cases. Squamous cell carcinoma was diagnosed by histopathology in 97% cases, adenocystic carcinoma in 2% cases, and myoepithelial carcinoma in 1%. Tobacco chewing was the commonest etiological factor in all the cases. The common site of involvement was tongue in 39% of cases, buccal mucosa in 28% cases, retromolar trigone in 14% cases.
Conclusion: Reduction in the burden of oral cancers can be achieved by reduction of risk factors, tobacco consumption, health education, and improvement of lifestyle. Additionally, recognizing and controlling precancerous lesions and early diagnosis of oral lesions, and initiation of appropriate therapy at initial stages will reduce morbidity and mortality associated with oral cancers.
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