Document Type : Research Article
Background: Typhoid fever is a major health problem in developing countries. It is caused by Salmonella typhi and S. paratyphi. The Clinical & Laboratory profile of these patients is affected by this infection.
Aims: This study was conducted to evaluate the Clinical & Laboratory Profile of Typhoid Fever in Children in Bihar Region.
Methods: A prospective observational study was conducted in the Department of Pediatric, Jawaharlal Nehru Medical College and Hospital, Bhagalpur, Bihar, India for 1 year. Total 200 Children aged below 18 years with history of fever of more than 7-10 days duration were included in this study. In each case, age, sex, presenting complaint, laboratory investigations and antibiotic sensitivity pattern are collected and analysed.
Results: Out of 200 cases, 140 (70%) were male and 60 (30%) were female. Most patients were between 6 and 12 years old. Most patients (70%) stayed in hospital for two weeks or more. Fever (100%) was the most prevalent symptom, followed by anorexia (65.5%), vomiting (45.5%), abdominal discomfort (20.5%), diarrhoea (12.5%), headache (9%) and cough (9%) (7.5 percent). Physical observations included toxic look (69.5%), coated tongue (49.5%), hepatomegaly (43.5%), splenomegaly (19.5%), hepatosplenomegaly (14%), and pallor (6.5%). Anemia was identified in 45 (22.5%) instances, while leucopenia and leucocytosis were found in 67 (33.5%) and 33 (16.5%) respectively. Neutropenia was detected in 83 (41.5%) instances and neutrophilia in 58 (29%). 89 (44.5%) had eosinopenia, 15 (7.5%) had eosinophilia, and 31 (15.5%) had thrombocytopenia. SGOT (>200IU/ml) was high in 23% of patients and SGPT (>200IU/ml) in 15%. Blood culture positive for Salmonella typhi in 49 instances (24.5%).
Conclusion: Public health interventions like supply of safe drinking water, appropriate sanitation, awareness of the disease and its transmission, and good personal hygiene practices may be employed.