Document Type : Research Article
Background: The ongoing worldwide Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has posed a huge threat to global public health1. COVID-19 represents a spectrum of clinical severity ranged from asymptomatic to critical pneumonia, acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and even death. Therefore, full monitoring the severity of COVID-19 and effective early intervention are the fundamental measures for reducing mortality.
Accumulating evidence has suggested that inflammatory responses play a critical role in the progression of COVID-19 3. Inflammatory responses induce the release of cytokines and chemokines. These cytokines and chemokines then attract immune cells and activate immune responses, leading to cytokine storms and aggravations4. Several inflammatory markers have some tracing and detecting accuracy for disease severity and fatality. But the results are inconclusive, with various studies giving different results. Our study intends to correlate levels of inflammatory markers with severity of Covid 19 infection and its final outcome.
Methods and materials:This is a retrospective study which includes 818 patients admitted to our hospital during the second wave of Covid 19 pandemic with confirmed Covid 19 infections by RTPCR. Admitted patients included mild disease to severe Covid 19 infections. Those patients who have received standardized treatment according to hospital protocol were included in the study. Data was collected and entered in pre-designed proforma. Results obtained will be compiled in excel sheet and will be analyzed statistically.
Results: Total of 818 patients were admitted to our hospital between May to July 2021. Of which 341 had mild disease, 241 had moderate disease, 237 patients had severe disease on presentation.While looking into the final outcome of the disease, 175 patients died due Covid 19 pneumonia or its complication, 52 patients were discharged with oxygen support. Of 237 patients with severe disease 150 patients had CRP levels >75mg/dl. Of 175 patients who died, 121 had CRP levels >75 mg/dl. Of 237 patients with severe disease, 122 of them had D-dimer >1000 ng/ml. Of 175 patients who died with Covid 19, 103 of them had d-dimer levels >1000 ng/ml.CRP and D-dimer were significantly increased in patients with severe disease and in patients who died of Covid 19 with p value <0.0001.
Conclusion: Increasing levels of CRP and D-dimer were good predictors of severe disease in Covid 19. Also, increased levels of CRP and d-dimer were suggestive of poorer outcome of the disease in terms of mortality and morbidity in Covid 19 infection.