Diabetes and glaucoma: How deep is the relation?
European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine,
2022, Volume 9, Issue 2, Pages 1136-1139
AbstractBackground and aim: India is one of the 7 countries of the IDF (International Diabetes Federation) SEA (south-east Asia) region. 463 million people have diabetes in the world and 88 million people in the SEA Region; by 2045 this will rise to 153 million. There were over 77,005,600 cases of diabetes in India in 2020.In our study we tried to determine the risk factors for development of Glaucoma, especially in Type-2 diabetics and its magnitude.
Methods: a cross sectional study done in KIMS OPD, Bangalore between January 2018-may 2019. Diabetes was diagnosed by history and measurement of blood sugar levels. Glaucoma was diagnosed by assessing optic disc morphology, visual fields, and intraocular pressure. Systemic blood pressure was also measured for the patients. Statistical significance was indicated by P < 0.05.
Results: Study cohort included 350 patients with Type-2 Diabetes (150 males and 250 females), mean age of 52+/- 9 years. Prevalence of glaucoma was 16% (95% CI; 13.4-18.3). Out of this 16%, 50% had primary open angle glaucoma, 32% primary angle closure, 12.5% neovascular glaucoma, 5.3% other types. 77% diabetics didn’t have Diabetic retinopathy. Presence of glaucoma was significantly associated with the duration of Diabetes (chi-square=5.80 and p<0.015). Presence of Diabetic retinopathy was Not significantly associated to the presence of glaucoma (odds ratio=1.42). Even presence of systemic hypertension did not affect the magnitude of glaucoma in diabetics.
Conclusion: Screening for glaucoma while screening Diabetic cases may yield us more cases of glaucoma and the duration of diabetes is one of the most important determinants for development of glaucoma.
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