A STUDY ON CLINICAL AND BACTERIOLOGICAL PROFILE OF ABDOMINAL SURGICAL SITE INFECTIONS (SSI)-OBSERVATIONAL STUDY
European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine,
2022, Volume 9, Issue 3, Pages 11514-11526
AbstractBackground:A surgical site infection is an infection that occurs after surgery in the part of the body where the surgery took place. SSIs previously called Post-operative wound infection result from bacterial contamination during or after a surgical procedure.Surgical Site Infection (SSI) by definition refers to an infection which occurs within 30 days after the surgery or within 1 year when an implant is left in place after the surgery and involving the incision or deep tissues at the operated site or infections involving organ or body space other than the incision, which was opened or manipulated during an operation. Surgical site infections (SSI) constitute a major public health problem worldwide and are the second most frequently reported nosocomial infections. They are responsible for increasing the treatment cost, length of hospital stays and significant morbidity and mortality. A surgical site infection is an infection that occurs after surgery in the part of the body where the surgery took place. This study is an attempt to know the pre-operative, Operative and post-operative factors predisposing to Surgical site infections and the bacteriological profile of those infection so as to establish Antibiotic guidelines in our tertiary care centre.
Materials and Methods: All adult male and female patients of age more than 18 yrs undergoing abdominal surgeries for various reasons were included in the study. This prospective study was conducted in the department of general surgery in SVS Medical College between 1-6-2020 to 6-5-2021.
Results: This study included 100 patients who underwent abdominal surgery, out of which 30 patients developed Surgical site infections. So the incidence is 30%. Incidence of SSI among males was 29.3 % whereas incidence of infection among females was 33.3 %. Clean wounds had least SSI (6.7%) and the Dirty wounds had the highest SSI (50%). Using drain was associated with increased incidence of SSI (44%) and mesh usage was not associated with SSI. SSI was most commonly detected on Post op day (POD) 4 (20 out of 45 cases). The SSI rate increased with increasing age and it also increased significantly with the increasing duration of pre-operative hospitalization. The SSI rate was significantly higher in emergency surgeries as compared to the elective surgeries. The infection rate was significantly higher as the duration of the surgery increased. The most commonly isolated organism from surgical site infections were Enterococci (22.2%) and staphylococcus aureus (22.2%) and other bacteria. Most of the organisms which were isolated were multidrug resistant. The high rate of resistance to many antibiotics underscored the need for a policy that could promote more rational use of antibiotics.
Conclusion: The rate of SSI observed in this study was comparable to other similar studies, however we observed a higher degree of antimicrobial resistance. Adherence to strict infection control measures, maintenance of proper hand hygiene and optimal preoperative, intraoperative and postoperative patient care will surely reduce the incidence of SSIs.
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