Retinopathy of Prematurity Incidence and Risk factors in low-birth-weight Neonates Admitted in SNCU
European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine,
2022, Volume 9, Issue 4, Pages 1342-1348
AbstractBackground: Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) affects the developing retinal vasculature in premature neonates and is a complex condition. It typically happens in neonates who have undergone critical care, particularly those who have received prolonged oxygen therapy and those who have numerous other risk factors. the current study evaluated the incidence of ROP in preterm infants with a gestational age of fewer than 36 weeks of gestational age or a birth weight of less than 2000 gm admitted to SNCU.
Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted at SNCU of Kakatiya Medical College and MGM Hospital, Warangal. ROP screening examinations can have short-term effects on blood pressure, heart rate, and respiratory function in the premature baby, examinations were kept as short as possible and precautions are taken to ensure that emergencies were dealt with promptly and effectively. The discomfort to the baby was minimized by pre-treatment of the eyes with a topical Proparacaine and swaddling the baby. Babies were fed at least one hour before the examination to avoid vomiting and aspiration.
Results: A total of n=102 babies were screened for the Incidence of Retinopathy of Prematurity (ROP) Overall incidence of ROP in the study was n=32(31.4%) the female to male ratio is 1.6:1. Out of the n=32 babies with ROP n=11 babies had stage 1 disease, n=13 babies had stage 2, n=5 babies had stage 3 disease, and n=2 babies had stage 4 disease. Out of n=32 babies, ROP positive cases n=2 babies had the disease in zone 1, n=2 babies had the disease in zone 1 & 2, n=6 babies had the disease in zone 2, n=10 babies had the disease in zone 2 & 3, n=12 babies had the disease in zone 3.
Conclusion: The incidence of ROP in the current study was found to be 31.4% and 40.63% of these cases were in the stage 2 ROP. The gestational age of neonates in the current study was taken to less than 36 weeks because low gestational age is an independent risk factor for ROP. On univariate analysis, the duration of oxygen administration, clinical sepsis, apnoea, RDS, ventilation history, CPAP duration, neonatal jaundice, NEC, and hypotension are significantly associated with ROP.
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