STUDY OF SIALIC ACID AND NITRIC OXIDE IN TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS WITH AND WITHOUT DIABETICNEPHROPATHY
European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine,
2022, Volume 9, Issue 4, Pages 1466-1478
AbstractBackground:In diabetes, acute phase reactants are taken into consideration to be diagnostic indications of both microvascular angiopathy and cardiovascular mortality. The chemical sialic acid is an example of one of these acute phase reactants. A deficiency in the amount of bioavailable nitric oxide has been hypothesised to be responsible for the endothelial dysfunction that is commonly linked with diabetes. It has been demonstrated that the vasodilatation that is dependent on NO plays a crucial role in the regulation and maintenance of vascular tone in renal microcirculation.Objectives:1.To evaluate and compare concentrations of serum sialic acid, nitric oxide, glycated haemoglobin, serum lipid profile (TC, TG, LDL, HDL), Urinary Albumin Creatinine Ratio (UACR) in diabetic patients with and without nephropathy and healthy controls.2.To correlate serum sialic acid with glycated haemoglobin, lipid profile, and UACR in diabetics with and without nephropathy.3.To correlate serum nitric oxide with glycated haemoglobin, lipid profile, UACR in diabetics with and without nephropathy.
Materials and Methods: 80 subjects participated. 40 healthy individuals and 80 diabetics were studied. Diabetes with nephropathy and diabetes without nephropathy were each 40 cases. Serum sialic acid was quantified by Ehrlich's reagent, serum nitric oxide by Kinetic cadmium reduction, serum glycated haemoglobin and urine microalbumin by immunoturbidimetric, urinary creatinine by modified Jaffee's method, and TC, TG, HDL by enzymatic methods. Friedewald's formula found LDL.
Results: Age of controls was 51.0 6.8 years, diabetic cases were 53.0 7.5 years, and diabetic nephropathy was 52.5 7.5 years. In the 40 controls, 22 were male and 18 were female. 19 of the 40 diabetic patients were male and 21 were female. 19 of the 40 diabetic nephropathy patients were male and 21 were female. There was no significant difference between the sex distribution of controls and cases (p>0.05). The mean concentrations of all the parameters except serum nitric oxide and HDL were significantly increased in cases when compared with healthy controls. Sialic acid showed a positive correlation with glycated haemoglobin, lipid profile, and UACR. HDL showed a negative correlation. Nitric oxide showed a negative correlation with glycated haemoglobin, lipid profile, UACR. HDL showed a positive correlation.
Conclusion: Serum sialic acid and nitric oxide are indicators of diabetes and diabetic nephropathy, according to the study. Dyslipidemia and glycemic control are affected. Early measurement of sialic acid and nitric oxide helps reduce diabetes complications.
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