A HOSPITAL BASED OBSERVATIONAL STUDY TO CORRELATE THE CYTOLOGICAL FEATURES OF THE ASCITIC FLUID WITH CLINICAL DATA AT NEWLY ESTABLISHED TERTIARY CARE CENTER: A CLINICO-PATHOLOGICAL STUDY
European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine,
2022, Volume 9, Issue 4, Pages 1696-1705
AbstractBackground: The proper evaluation of ascitic fluid helps in narrowing the diagnostic dilemma faced by the physicians and helps in better management of the patients. Early and accurate diagnosis often depends on appropriate ascitic fluid analysis. The aim of this study to correlate the cytological features of the ascitic fluid with clinical data at newly established tertiary care center.
Materials & Methods: A prospective study was conducted in the Department of Pathology, in a tertiary health care centre over a period of one year. Cytological examination was performed to reveal important information regarding the causes of ascites and classified as benign (with or without infection/ spontaneous bacterial peritonitis), suspicious or malignant conditions. Cytomorphology of the cells was studied and documented paying attention to cellular arrangement, cytoplasmic features and nuclear characteristics. Clinical information of the patient and cytomorphological features of the smears were studied and the samples were categorized into benign (with or without infection/ SBP), suspicious of malignancy or malignant.
Results: Our study showed that the mean age was 55.67 years. Out of 30 cases, 14 were males and 16 were females, with male to female ratio being 7:8. Out of 30 samples, 26 (86.66%) were benign, 2 (6.66%) were suspicious of malignancy, and 2 (6.66%) were positive for malignancy. The most frequent clinical diagnosis was Alcoholic Liver disease comprising of 8 (26.66%) cases. The predominant cell type was Lymphocyte in 14 (46.66%) of cases, Neutrophil in 9 (30%) of cases, Reactive mesothelial cell in 5 (16.66%) of cases and atypical/malignant cells in 2 (6.66%) of cases. Histiocytic cells were also seen.
Conclusion: We concluded that non neoplastic and neoplastic conditions causing ascites can be diagnosed on ascitic fluid cytology. Increased neutrophil count is strongly suggestive of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP). The careful cytomorphological examination of ascitic fluid is a valuable, simple, rapid, inexpensive and reliable technique in the differential diagnosis of ascites, particularly in resource limited settings.
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