A STUDY ON EFFICACY OF LASER PHOTOCOAGULATION IN THE MANAGEMENT OF RETINOPATHY OF PREMATURITY AMONG NEONATES
European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine,
2022, Volume 9, Issue 6, Pages 95-106
AbstractBackground: Retinopathy of Prematurity (ROP), is a disease process seen in preterm low birth weight infants that affects the normal retinal vascular development. In case of a premature birth the process of normal retinal vascular development is altered and abnormal neovascularization ensues, thus making this disease one of the major emerging causes of childhood blindness accounting for 38 to 47% of childhood blindness in India. Management of Retinopathy of Prematurity differs in modalities depending on the Stage and extent of the disease. Laser Photocoagulation is the treatment of choice and the most common modality advocated for early management to provide better prognosis. Aim: This study evaluated the clinical outcome and efficacy of laser photocoagulation in the management of retinopathy of prematurity among neonates at a tertiary Care hospital in Hyderabad. Materials and Methods: This is a prospective interventional study conducted at a tertiary eye care Hospital during December 2019 to June 2021 with a sample size of 30 from the Neonates screened for ROP at Sarojini Devi Eye Hospital and Niloufer Children’s Hospital, Hyderabad. In this small study, all the neonates with birth weight less than 1500 gms and age of gestation less than 32 weeks with the help of a Binocular Indirect Ophthalmoscope and diagnosed with Threshold for treatment ROP were treated by Laser photocoagulation using the Laser Indirect Ophthalmoscope delivery system. Result: All neonates treated were followed up for outcome.30 neonates underwent confluent laser photocoagulation at a mean postconceptional age of 36.4 weeks (range 32-40 weeks).The mean post-laser follow-up visits were 5 (range 4-8) i.e. upto postconceptional age of 46.25 weeks (range 40-53). It was observed that Laser had a favourable outcome in 25 patients (83.3%) who showed regression of the disease. 5 patients (16.7%) showed progression even after 2 treatment sessions and they were planned for Intravitreal anti-VEGF later. Conclusion: Thus, it can be concluded that effective screening strategies especially in at risk babies (pre-term and/or Low birth weight) leading to early diagnosis of ROP and timely treatment help in preserving vision and preventing blindness in neonates.
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