Document Type : Research Article
Introduction: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) prevalence is high, especially in patients with obesity and type 2 diabetes, and is expected to rise steeply in the coming decades. Objective: We estimated NAFLD prevalence in patients with type 2 diabetes and explored associated characteristics and outcomes.
Material and Method: This is a prospective and cross-sectional study was conducted in the Department of Medicine at Tertiary care Teaching Hospital over a period of 6 months. The study population comprised of male and female patients who were diagnosed as having type 2 diabetes mellitus based on their fasting and random blood sugar levels. Frequency and percentages were calculated for categorical variables like sex and non-alcoholic fatty liver diagnosed on abdominal ultrasound. Non-alcoholic fatty liver was stratified among the age, sex and duration of type-2 diabetes mellitus to see the effect modifiers.
Results: Out of 320 participants, 200 patients (62.5%) had NAFLD on ultrasound. A total of 320 participants were enrolled for the study, of whom there were 140 (43.75%) males and 180 (56.25%) females. The mean age and mean duration of T2DM are presented. Overall, NAFLD was present in 200 (62.5%) study participants. Moreover, patients having NAFLD were compared with patients having no ultrasonographic evidence of NAFLD. There was no statistically significant difference between the two groups regarding mean age and gender distribution. Though, there was a statistically significant difference amongst the two groups in terms of HbA1c, triglycerides, total cholesterol, LDL and HDL cholesterol and serum uric acid.
Conclusion: This study reported an increased frequency of NAFLD in our diabetic population and evaluated in depth the risk factors associated with NAFLD, underpinning the significance of carrying further large-scale studies to assess the effects of lifestyle modification in the form of physical activity and dietary modifications on the status of NAFLD and glycemic control. Taking in to account the results of this study, patients and their treating physicians should emphasize on the modification of the associated factors and it is also advisable to screen diabetic patients for this condition in routine clinical practice. Early detection and timely management will help promote healthy lifestyle and prevent long term complications of the condition