Document Type : Research Article
Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are the most common bacterial infections affecting approximately 11% of adult women each year globally, with approximately 60% of women experiencing UTI during their lifetime. Extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) are extremely broad spectrum β-lactamase enzymes, which can be produced by Gram-negative bacteria. They are mainly found in a family of Enterobacteriaceae. ESBLs are produced by the mutation of the TEM-1, TEM-2, and SHV-1 β-lactamases.