Study of lipoproteins in type 1 diabetes mellitus
European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine,
2022, Volume 9, Issue 4, Pages 3730-3736
AbstractAim and Objectives: Type I Diabetes mellitus previously classified as juvenile diabetes is supposed to cause derangements in lipid metabolism, consequent on impaired glucose metabolism just like type II diabetes mellitus. If these patients are early diagnosed and properly treated, with good control of diabetes, degenerative changes may be postponed or stopped (or) onset may not occur. Aim is to Study lipoprotein patterns and disturbances in lipid metabolism in cases of type I diabetes mellitus, who are on regular treatment with Insulin.
Materials and Methods: Glucose tolerance test and lipid profile in IDDM patients is done and compared with same biochemical parameters with the healthy non diabetic controls. Cases are being selected from the medical wards of Govt., General Hospital, and Guntur. Cases of about 35 diabetics (IDDM) of both sexes, of various age groups from 6 to 40 years, without clinically manifested complications were investigated. At the same time about 35 controls of nondiabetic healthy persons without hyperglycemia and glycosuria were investigated for comparison with the cases.
Results: The mean HDL cholesterol level for IDDM patients is 37.514 mg % (S.D = + 6.213). In case of normals, the HDL-C is 43.57 mg% (S.D = +6.31) P value is 0.01. So there is significant decrease in HDLC in IDDMpatients compared with normals. The mean VLDL-C level for IDDM patients is 46.25 mg% (S.D= + 9.419) and the mean VLDLC concentration in case of normals is 29.71mg% (S.D± 10.53) P value is 0.01. So VLDL-C is increased in IDDMpatients compared with normals.The mean LDL-C concentration for IDDM patients is 141.971ng% (S.D+51.64) and the mean LDL-C concentration in case of normal94.51 mg% (S.D± 21.88) P value is .01. So there is increasedconcentration of LDL-C in IDDM patients compared with normals. The LDL-C and HDL-C ratio is more in case of IDDM patents compared with normals.
Discussion: The history of the patients is studied. None of them are smokers (or) Alcholics (or) with abnormal food habits leading to obesity. So the basis of the study of lipoproteins is purely is in relation to type I Diabetes mellitus. None of the patients showed any signs and symptoms of cardiac insufficiency (or) cardiomyopathy symptoms. The lipoprotein pattern studied in these patients have shown significant rise of LDL-C in almost all the patients. Mild rise of Triglycerides is seen in all the patients with the mean of 242.628 mg %. The patients studied are on treatment with insulin for more than one year and are with adequate control. Inspite of their treatment of diabetes with insulin therapy, the observation is that, there is increase in cholesterol and triglyceride levels. This indicates that Acetyl COA and FFA are shunted towards fat synthesis. HDL fraction is seen in all the patients studied by lipoprotein pattern. The mean value of HDL obtained is 37.5 mg% for normal controls LDL, HDL and VLDL are lower range than Type I diabetes patients.
Conclusion: This study shows that if the patients with diabetes are on regular treatment with insulin and maintaining the normal blood sugar levels, the complications are postponed and less likely to appear. Those whose GTT is increased showing increased or abnormal blood sugar levels have altered or increased lipoprotein levels. This increased lipoproteins may lead to cardiovascular complications in future which life are threatening
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