Central nervous system cryptococcosis prevalence in a tertiary care facility
European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine,
2022, Volume 9, Issue 4, Pages 4003-4009
AbstractThe fungus Cryptococcus neoformans is the causative agent of cryptococcosis, which is a systemic opportunistic fungal infection. Cryptococcus neoformans is a capsulated opportunistic yeast fungus that mostly infects HIV-infected and other immunocompromised hosts, causing meningitis or meningoencephalitis in the central nervous system (CNS). A significant contributor to death in immunocompromised patients is the presence of cryptococcal disease in the central nervous system. A prospective study was carried out on a total of 160 patients who were suffering from cryptococcal meningitis and other co-morbid conditions, such as diabetes, the use of corticosteroids, chronic debilitating illness, and HIV/AIDS patients. The patients all had symptoms related to the central nervous system (CNS). The purpose of the study was to identify and isolate Cryptococcus neoformans from cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples taken from immunocompromised patients at the Government General Hospital in Guntur who were suspected of having cryptococcal meningitis. These patients also had other co-morbid conditions, such as diabetes, corticosteroid use, and chronic debilitating illnesses. This work contributes to the assessment of the prevalence of cryptococcosis of the central nervous system (CNS) in immunocompromised persons such as HIV/AIDS patients. This enables the clinician and the community to provide appropriate patient care and to take the appropriate precautions. Various cryptococcal studies, including India ink, gram staining, culture, and CALAS, are performed on two hundred and fifty CSF samples. A prospective study was carried out for a total of six months, beginning in July 2021 and ending in December 2021. Males and girls were equally likely to be engaged in each of the total 160 cases, with the ratio standing at 1:1. The overall prevalence of Cryptococcus was found to be 16% in high-risk patients, with HIV-positive patients having a prevalence of 12.6%, diabetic patients having a prevalence of 2.6%, and other patients having a prevalence of 0.8%. A routine mycological evaluation is required for an early and definitive diagnosis as well as appropriate treatment. This will have a beneficial effect on both morbidity and mortality.
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