Document Type : Research Article
Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinico-pathological profile of colorectal cancer patients in our tertiary care hospital.
Material and methods: This prospective as well as retrospective study was conducted in Gastroenterology division of Department of General Medicine at Ananta Institute of Medical Sciences & Research Center, Udaipur, Rajasthan, India. Total 174 patients presenting with colorectal cancer (CRC) from August 2019 to July 2022 were included in the study. Study tools were Study-questionnaire, investigations [routine blood tests, CEA, Colonoscopy, USG, CECT and MRI] and histopathological reports. Parameters studied were age, sex, site of lesion, clinical presentations and histopathology of the lesion.
Results: We observed that overall proliferative type was the most common type of tumor in our patients (n=75; 43.10%) with p value of <0.0001, followed by infiltrative (n=59; 33.91%), ulcerative (n=36; 20.69%) and ulcero-infiltrative (n=4; 2.29%). History of colorectal cancer in family was present in 45 (25.86%) of patients; with statistically significant p value of <0.0001. Out of 174 patients, 81 (46.55%) were smokers (p value 0.544). The most common clinical presentation of the patients in our study was change in bowel habits (n=136; 78.16%) followed by bleeding per rectum (PR) (n=117; 67.24%), abdominal pain (n=102; 58.20%) and generalized weakness (n=78; 44.83%). Most common site of involvement was rectum (n=78; 44.83%) followed by right colon (ascending colon and ceacum) (n=5531;61%), descending colon (n=18; 10.34%), sigmoid (n=16; 9.19%) and transverse colon (n=7;(4.02%). Together rectosigmoid comprise about 54.02% of total CRC. In our study we found elevated preoperative CEA levels (≥ 5.1 ng/ ml) in 80 (45.98%) patients, not elevated (≤ 5.0 ng/ml) in 36(20.69%) patients and not taken/unknown in 58 (33.33%) patients.
Conclusion: The incidence of CRC is increasing in younger age group and younger patients present at advanced stage. Lack of awareness about CRC in general population and lack of screening programs are responsible for advanced stage of CRC at presentation. Public awareness through mass-media, screening of high-risk populations, early diagnosis, cost-effective multi-modality treatment and regular follow-up is the call of the time for limiting the morbidity and mortality associated with colorectal cancer.