Document Type : Research Article
Background & Objectives: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the causative agent of COVID-19 is a novel betacoronavirus that first appeared in Wuhan, Hubei Province, China in late December 2019. Real‐time reverse‐transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT‐ PCR) test has been routinely used as the diagnostic test to detect SARS‐CoV‐2 nucleic acids in respiratory specimen swabs from throat, nasopharynx, and nose of individuals suspected of COVID‐19 during the acute phase of infection. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) cycle threshold (Ct) has been suggested as an approximate measure of initial viral burden. So this study was undertaken retrospectively to evaluate association of CT values of patients tested positive for SARS CoV 2 by RT-PCR with clinical features and the outcomes of patients.
Materials and Methods: A retrospective study was performed among patients tested positive for SARS CoV 2 by RT- PCR & admitted in at Dr.Chandramma Dayananda Sagar institute of Medical education and research, Harohalli, Ramanagara. during the period of 08 months from January 2021 to August 2021. The details of the patients on duration of hospital stay, age, presence of comorbidities, intubation, mortality were recorded. The obtained CT values were classified into 3 Groups: Group 1 > 30.0, Group 2 -25.0-29.9, Group 3 < 25. The data was analysed using descriptive statistics.
Results: The study comprised of 668 (men 451,women 217) patients tested positive for SARS CoV 2 by RT- PCR. The mean age in men was 51 years and women was 38 years. 209 patients of Group 3, (31.2%) patients were significantly higher age, co-morbidities like Hypertension, Diabetes mellitus and obstructive lung disease, more than 418 patients of Group 2 (62.5%) and 41 patients of Group 1 (6.13%) patients. Duration of hospital stay was 14 days in Group 3 compared to Group 2 and Group 1 patients. Noninvasive ventilation (12.8%), Invasive ventilation (11.4%) and mortality (11.6%) is more in Group 3 compared to Group 2 and Group 1 patients.
Conclusion: This study provide evidence that Low CT values suggestive of greater SARS CoV 2 viral load are associated with the severity of illness and duration of hospitalization. CT values may allow for early risk stratification in patients with SARS CoV 2.