Green Technologies: Smart Approaches for Extraction of Phytobioactive Constituents Using Hydrotropic Solvents
European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine,
2022, Volume 9, Issue 7, Pages 6947-6968
AbstractA reservoir of food, chemical, and therapeutic molecules is produced by each plant through the synthesis of phytochemicals with special properties. It is crucial to extract phytochemicals using environmentally friendly solvents rather than conventional, non-ecofriendly solvents in tandem with the development of green technologies. Traditional methods use large amounts of organic solvents, a lot of time, and a lot of energy, which has generated interest in newly developed clean or ecologically friendly methods. These might reduce or completely stop the use of dangerous solvents, safeguarding the environment and its resources. A green solvent called hydrotrope makes hydrophobic or hardly water-soluble substances, such sulphate, sulfonate, and carboxylate, more soluble in aqueous solutions. Additionally, it increases the solubility of phytoconstituents such diosgenin from dioscorea rhizomes, vanillin from vanilla beans, citral from lemongrass, piperine from black pepper, and limonin from sour orange herbs. Complexes of hydrotrope-solute are produced when hydrotropes and solutes interact strongly. Interjecting itself into the structure of liquid water and acting as a structure creator also affects the solvent's composition. As a result, it can self-associate and form aggregates that can function as micelles at the lowest hydrotrope concentration. Contrary to these technologies, hydrotropy is a tried-and-true technique for dealing with solubility issues. Due to their unique qualities, ease of accessibility, excellent recovery, lack of fire risks, eco-friendliness, and high separation factors, hydrotropic solutions are in high demand in the industry. It has been shown that switching to green technology instead of traditional techniques may increase extraction yields, speed up processing, and lessen the harm that hazardous solvents cause to the environment. Additionally, it will help scientists better understand hydrotropy and enhance herbal medications.
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