Age dependent addiction among smokeless tobacco users in Punjab population using fagerstorm nicotine dependence scale
European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine,
2022, Volume 9, Issue 8, Pages 2477-2481
AbstractBackground: Smokeless tobacco e including products that are chewed, snuffed, or placed between the teeth and gum rather than smoked by the user e is highly addictive and has been linked with numerous health outcomes, including cardiovascular mortality, many types of cancer. Smokeless tobacco use has been associated with a number adverse health outcomes in India and across South Asia.
Methodology: A cross-sectional study of patients at a dental hospital in Punjab who undergoing tobacco cessation counselling, was conducted between January and June 2019. Trained interviewers administered a questionnaire to all patients receiving regular dental care regarding their demographic information, data about the use of smokeless tobacco. Nicotine dependence was assessed using the six-item Fagerstrom Nicotine Dependence Scale, adapted for smokeless tobacco. At baseline, the modified dependence scale was administered to the participants and a saliva sample was collected to measure cotinine.
Results: The subjects for this study included 100 males who were recruited for a tobacco cessation intervention that involved a visit with a dentist and advice to quit smoking during the exam. High nicotine dependence was associated with a younger age of initiation of smokeless tobacco use and with frequency of use, with those who reported daily use having an excess risk of high nicotine dependence of 14% (95% CI: 2%, 27%). The correlation between the total score and salivary cotinine was moderate among the ST users (r = 0.35), Among ST users, the coefficient alpha was 0.39;
Conclusion: To reduce dependence on smokeless tobacco in India and subsequent adverse health outcomes, interventions should emphasize a combination of policy and public health interventions focused on increasing the age at which a person initially uses smokeless tobacco and decreasing the frequency of use.
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