Document Type : Research Article
Background: To assess the prevalence of Rota virus gastroenteritis among immunised and unimmunised children below 5 years and to assess the prevalence of complications among Rotaviral gastroenteritis.
Materials and Methods: Eighty- six cases of gastroenteritis in children aged less than 5 years were enrolled and demographic data of each patient, immunization history, clinical history and other relevant information was collected. Stool collection was done and sample was processed in special media, Wilson blair and alkaline peptone water. All the samples were tested for Rota virus. Prevalence of complications in rotaviral gastroenteritis assessed using clinical examination and radiological and laboratory parameters.
Results: Out of 86 patients, Rota virus was seen in 46, parasites in 24, bacteria in 10 and unknown in 6 cases. The difference was significant (P< 0.05). Among the total 46 children with rotaviral gastroenteritis, 10 were immunised for rotavirus and 36 were unimmunised. The difference was statistically significant(P <0.05). There were 25 males and 21 females among Rota virus positive cases. The difference was non- significant (P> 0.05) (Table II). Rota virus positive and Rota virus negative cases, duration of diarrhea was 0-4 days in 5 and 8, 5 days in 7 and 20, 6-7 days in 34 and 12. Vomiting was seen in 30 and 24. Duration of vomiting in days (1) was seen in 10 and 18, (2) in 22 and 12 and (3) in 14 and 10. Fever was seen in 34 and 15 and blood in stools seen in 20 and 10 cases . Dehydration was mild in 14 and 18, moderate in 6 and 10, severe in 10 and 8 and very severe in 16 and 4 respectively. Children with rotaviral gastroenteritis had higher rate of intussusception presenting in 12 out of 46 children whereas children with non rotaviral gastroenteritis had only one case of intussusception among 40. The prevalence of complications was more in rotaviral gastroenteritis than others. The difference was significant (P< 0.05) (Table III, graph I).Duration of stay in the hospital was 10 days in average for rotaviral gastroenteritis when compared to other infectious causes where the stay was 5 days in average. The difference was statistically significant (p<0.05).
Conclusion: There was high prevalence of Rota virus infection in unimmunised children less than 5 years with gastroenteritis and the prevalence of complications were high among rotaviral affected children. In conclusion, rotaviral vaccination prevents gastroenteritis associated with severe complications which affect the quality of life in children below 5 years.