Document Type : Research Article
Introduction: Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is the most common medical complication and metabolic disorder of pregnancy. The aim and objective of this study were to determine the prevalence of GDM and its relationship with various risk factors.
Material & Method - Cross-sectional Descriptive study was conducted in a selected tertiary care Hospital, Bhubaneswar,Odisha, India. The tool used was a self-structured questionnaire. The study was done on 289 antenatal mothers of any gestation age, attending an antenatal outpatient department in a tertiary care hospital of KIMS, PBMH, Hospital Bhubaneswar. These antenatal mothers were given 75gm oral glucose irrespective of the last meal and their plasma glucose was estimated at 2 hours. Antenatal mothers with plasma glucose values ≥140 mg/dl were labeled as GDM. Antenatal mothers who were diabetic before pregnancy or who had chronic diseases like tuberculosis, malignancy, renal failure, cardiac disorder, and mothers with twin pregnancies were not included in the study. The sampling technique used was the consecutive sampling technique among all study samples it was assessed by using chi-square, P value statistical analysis, and analysis was done by the use of SPSS software version 20 and Microsoft Excel, 2007.
Results: The study shows that the prevalence of GDM was 29.7% and the risk factors are 90.70% of antenatal mothers were taking 4-5 times meals per day during pregnancy,98. 84 % of mothers were under BMI 25 to 29.9, 52.33% of mothers were moderate workers, Diabetes Mellitus was present34.88% in family history, Amniotic fluid 1000-1500 ml was present in 56.98% of mothers,84.88% non-veg diet.
Conclusion: In this study, the GDM prevalence rate was 29.7%. It is a medical associated disorder during pregnancy. GDM has detrimental effects on the mother as well as the fetus. Hence screening and early detection are highly recommended, and close monitoring of blood glucose levels has shown to significantly reduce fetomaternal morbidity and mortality rate