CLINICAL STUDY OF CARDIAC INVOLVEMENT IN GERIATRIC TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS WITH REFERENCE TO ELECTROCARDIOGRAPHY AND 2D ECHOCARDIOGRAPHY
European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine,
2023, Volume 10, Issue 1, Pages 1579-1593
AbstractCardiovascular problems brought on by ageing and the premature atherosclerosis unique to DM are the most common consequences.Thus Geriatric Diabetic patients have a high prevalence of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Coronary Artery diseases,Heart failure,Diabetic Autonomic cardiomyopathy causing arrhythmias are more common type of cardiovascular diseases in these group of patients.
Materials and Methods: The present prospective cross sectional hospital based observational study was conducted among 150 Geriatric patients with Type 2 diabetes Mellitus. A detailed clinical history was taken from all the patients regarding symptoms of Diabetes Mellitus Type 2. The data was collected and entered into a spread sheet application (Microsoft9 Excel ).
Results: Majority of the study participants were among 60-70 years (89.33%) and least being >80 years(0.67%) .Majority of the study participants were females with 50.67% and 49.33% were males.
considering BMI,47.61% cases were Overweight (25-30) and 15.65% cases were Obese (>30).Major duration of DM among study population was 10-20 years(50.67%) followed by <10 years (27.33%).Major symptoms suggestive of cardiovascular involvement was palpitation 44% followed by 37.33% fatigue.Major signs suggestive of cardiovascular involvement was crepitations 13.33%, followed by 10% pedal edema. Major chest x-ray finding was cardiomegaly 12%, followed by 6.67% Pleural effusion.Major ECG changes considering infarction was NSTEMI 15.33% followed by 12% STEMI.Major ECG changes considering arrhythmias was sinus tachycardia 18% followed by 6.67% sinus bradycardia, 0.67% atrial fibrillation, 1.33% VPC, 19.33% LVH and 0.67% BBB.Major 2D Echo findings was 36.67% LVDD followed by 32.67% had Hypokinesia, 31% akinesia, 27.33% LVSD.It was observed that Around 62% had no cardiovascular involvement, 31.33% had Myocardial infarction, 20.67% arrythmia, 12.67% heart failure and 12% Diabetic cardiomyopathy (HCM+DCM).
Conclusion: Geriatric Diabetics are at significantly increased risk for cardiovascular disease. Myocardial Infarction is commonest cardiovascular abnormality detected.ECG and Echocardiography are basic yet most sensitive diagnostic procedure to detect CVD at an early stage .
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