Clinical Profile of Diabetic Foot and its Correlation with Microbiological Profile
European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine,
2023, Volume 10, Issue 4, Pages 655-660
AbstractWorldwide diabetes mellitus affects more than 194 million people and the figure is expected to reach 333 million by the year 2025.With the maximum number of cases being in developing countries, diabetes mellitus is a global problem. India has the highest number of diabetic patients and is considered as the “diabetic capital of the world.” Diabetic foot is the most common complication of diabetes and is greater than retinopathy, nephropathy, heart attack and stroke combined. Diabetic foot is one of the most feared complications of diabetes. The ultimate result of diabetic foot disease is amputation and is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. It also has immense social, psychological & financial consequences for the patient and the family.
Objectives: To study the morbidity profile [limb salvage surgery, amputations] of diabetic foot. To study the microbiological profile [type of organisms], antibiotic sensitivity and correlate it with prognosis
Materials and Methods: This was a prospective study done on 100 diabetic foot patients in our own hospital over a period of Two years. Data was obtained from a questionnaire developed to record the medical history, examination details, investigations reports, treatment details and final outcome at the end of stay. Foot infection was classified based on Meggitt – Wagner, classification / grading. Wound swab was obtained using standard techniques and sent for direct smear study, culture and antibiotic susceptibility for appropriate antibiotics using standardized Kirby –Bauer disc diffusion test of clinical and Laboratory Standards. Conclusion: Based on the results of our study, it can be concluded that diabetic foot in various forms accounts for significant morbidity in the surgical wards. The factors contributing mainly are poor glycemic control at the time of admission, presence of gangrene, associated risk factors like smoking, alcohol consumption and associated co morbidities(anemia, peripheral vascular disease, Hypertension, Ischemic disease).Diabetic foot infections are more prone for recurrence so preventive measures like diabetic control, foot care is needed.
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