Document Type : Research Article
To quantify the anthropometry, morbidity pattern, and mortality among infants of diabetic mothers.
Method: A cross-sectional observational study was conducted at the Department of Pediatrics at Siddhartha Medical College in Vijayawada. The study includes total 260 neonates among 60 neonates born to mothers with gestational diabetes mellitus or overt diabetes mellitus. Data related to the mode of delivery, gestational age, birth weight, associated morbidities, investigations, and outcomes were collected.
Results: Of the 60 neonates studied, 48 (80%) were born to mothers with Gestational Diabetes Mellitus, and 12 (20%) were born to mothers with Overt Diabetes Mellitus. Babies born to diabetic mothers have a significantly higher mean birth weight (3.05kg) than babies born to non-diabetic mothers (2.767kg) [p=0.001]. 81.6% of diabetic mothers are born with normal birth weight. The most common morbidity in neonates born to gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) mothers compared to overt diabetes mellitus (DM) mothers was hypoglycemia in 20 cases (33.33%), hypocalcemia in 6 cases (10%), hyperbilirubinemia in 17 cases (28.33%), polycythemia in 3 cases (5%), birth asphyxia in 3 cases (5%), respiratory distress in 16 cases (26.6%), and congenital heart diseases in 15 babies (25%). In total, 5.67 percent of the 260 population had congenital anomalies. Three babies died out of a total of 60, with two born to gestational diabetes mothers and one born to a pre-gestational diabetes mother.
Conclusion: The study shows disproportionate growth in the Infants of diabetic Mothers as evidenced by higher mean birth weight and mean ponderal index, morbidity and mortality were more common in the infants of GDM mothers when compared to overt DM mothers with good glycemic control. Metabolic problems and respiratory complications were common in the LGA of IDMs, and they need close monitoring.