Document Type : Research Article
Placenta is vital for the survival of the pregnancy because it performs several irreplaceable physiological functions. Thus, placental abnormalities including its location and attachment to the uterine wall endanger the successful completion of the pregnancy.
AIM: To investigate if the placental location (determined by ultrasonography) is associated with adverse pregnancy (both maternal and foetal) outcomes.
Material and Methods: This was a single-centre-, hospital (outpatient) based, prospective-, cohort-, observational study conducted over 6 months by enrolling 84 pregnant women. The primary outcome was the incidence of adverse pregnancy (maternal and foetal) outcomes. The location of the placenta was determined by ultrasound conducted during the second trimester. Thereafter, women were followed up until the delivery.
Results: The most common location of the placenta was fundal (32.1%), followed by anterolateral (23.8%), and the low-lying placenta was the least common (0.23%). The mean age of the participants was 26.6 years and for most of the women, it was their second pregnancy. Overall, the most common complication/morbidity among the participants was gestational hypertension (40.5%), and the most common neonatal complication was foetal growth retardation (35.7%). Moreover, both adverse maternal and foetal outcomes were most commonly seen among pregnant women with the laterally located placentas.
Conclusion: The attachment of placenta to the uterine wall varies a lot and it influences the maternal and foetal outcome.