Cytogenetic and immunological alterations of recurrent bladder cancer
European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine,
2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 1877-1883
AbstractAbstract: In this review, we discussed genetic and immunological changes of bladder
cancer along with relapse of this disease; however, it should be noted that in most cases,
multiple genetic and immunological changes occur simultaneously or mutually dependent
on each other. Many genetic mutations disrupt the function of genes involved in
regulation, and conversely, chromosomal aberrations lead to changes in transcription.
Pathogenesis and transition of normal urothelium of bladder into cancer are multifactorial
processes. Chronic inflammation causes the initiation and progression of the main
pathophysiology of invasive and metastatic cancer. A dichotomy is observed in the role of
immune cells in bladder cancer. Although the immune response protects the bladder by
suppressing tumor growth, certain immune cells including neutrophils, macrophages, and
T-lymphocytes contribute the development and progression of the tumor.
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