Document Type : Research Article
Male reproductive organ and other assessory sex glands plays an massive role in sperm production process, sperm maturation process, maintaining the entry of sperm cells in the female reproductive tract and until child birth. Many events could happen properly from semen ejaculation until it reaches the oozyte for proper fertilization. Any problem during the process of semen reaching female reproductive tract could men responsible. Overall 20 to 35 % of men contribute to the infertility. Clinical evidence suggests that tissue engineering and regenerative medicine could help men achieve the fertility status. Congenital abnormalities, iatrogenic injuries, trauma and other chronic conditions could be treated by regenerative medicine. Recently stem cell therapy has been emerging in the file of male infertility treatment regimes. In case of trauma, penile reconstruction, testes reconstruction available as most advanced treatment regime. Here we summarized the important findings and functions of testes, penile and scrotum reconstruction techniques, organ based regeneration for various male infertile disorders. Non-obstructive azoospermia conditions will be very tough to diagnose and this review comprises the important treatment regimes available for non-obstructive azoospermia. Antioxidants therapy, trace elements therapy, oral administration of carnitines and its potential applications were carefully elucidated for idiopathic conditions. We also summarized the role of prebiotics and probiotics as treatment regime for male infertility. All advanced treatments methods available were in general summarized in this review.