Salivaomics - A Review
European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine,
2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 2914-2931
AbstractThe term Salivaomics was coined in 2008, which is used for the development of knowledge about the salivary constituents. Saliva contains salivary markers which are used in the diagnosis of cardiovascular diseases, cancer, etc. Diagnosis from saliva is a developing field with appreciation as it contains hormonal status, neurological effects, nutritional and metabolic influence and immunological status, the diagnostic markers are very useful in various assays. There are 5 different branches in Salivaomics which are the diagnostic alphabets which include proteins, mRNA's, miRNA, metabolic compounds, and Microbes. Salivary genomics is the study of whole genomes i.e., DNA of all the organisms. Salivary proteomics is the study of the proteins present in the saliva. Saliva contains about 1,166 proteins. Salivary Metabolomics is the study in which small metabolites present within the system. Salivary transcriptomics is related to the diagnosis of mRNA. Around 185 mRNAs are found common in all healthy humans. Saliva has a proportionately distributed ratio of bacterial colonies like Bacteroidetes, Fusobacterium, Prevotells, Proteobacteria, Veillonella etc. The advantages of Salivaomics include potential diagnostic value, Safer and easier for the health care professionals compared to blood sampling which sometimes causes cross-infection, Multiple samples can also be obtained easily. There are certain disadvantages which make salivaomics less reliable and preference as a diagnostic tool, These include Composition and flow of the saliva is influenced by the method of saliva collection and also stimulation of saliva flow, biomarkers in saliva which are not reliable, Proteins present in the saliva are also affected by the rate of flow of saliva. SALO is a cross-disciplinary interaction creation, which helps in growing semantically enhanced web-enabled will be created within Salivaomics Knowledge Base (SKB).
With this background, the present study aims to review the uses, advantages, disadvantages, techniques and methods used in Salivaomics.
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