Old and New Concepts in Long Term Implant Success: A Review
European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine,
2020, Volume 7, Issue 3, Pages 1941-1945
AbstractIntroduction: This article intends to review the past and newer concepts in implantology, to gauge the long-term success of an implant.
Materials: The standards like presence of infection, discomfort, paraesthesia or anaesthesia, bone loss, gingival health, pocket depth, durability, effect on adjacent teeth, function, aesthetics, intrusion on the mandibular canal, patient's emotional and psychological attitude and satisfaction are considered in evaluation. Earlier concepts, given by Schnitman and Schulman(1979), Cranin et al(1982), McKinney et al. (1984) were evaluated along with newer concepts like the influence of width of attached gingiva, type of suture material used, associated medical conditions, smoking, width of the implant, genetic and immunological markers, exposure to radiation therapy and the type of flap used.
Results: Relating positive and negative factors of implant success gives the implant quotient. While earlier, the evaluation of implant success revolved round the stability, immobile, peri‑implant radiolucency, loss of marginal bone and absence of infection or discomfort to the patient, the recent studies show that attached gingiva width, co‑existing medical conditions, smoking, width of the implant, suture material used, all play a crucial role in implant success. The genetic and immunological factors like TNF‑α and IL‑1β are identified as diagnostic markers for implant success.
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